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1 Musemes in The MISSION Philip Tagg — Montréal/Rio de Janeiro, 2004-06; Version 3 (F), Montréal 2007-05, assisted by Simon Bertrand www.tagg.org “Era.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Musemes in The MISSION Philip Tagg — Montréal/Rio de Janeiro, 2004-06; Version 3 (F), Montréal 2007-05, assisted by Simon Bertrand www.tagg.org “Era."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Musemes in The MISSION Philip Tagg — Montréal/Rio de Janeiro, ; Version 3 (F), Montréal , assisted by Simon Bertrand “Era un problema a farne un tutt’uno” (Ennio Morricone, 1995)

2 2 Introduction (4 slides) –Summary of main musematic categories –Taxonomic criteria –Thematic identity and expressive specificity The musemes (>30 slides) –7 categories with music examples and intertextual musical references (IOCM) Conclusions Presentation overview

3 3 Summary of the 7 main musematic categories 1. Diaboli in musica 2. Danger drums & percussion 3. Intermittent bursts 4. Smooth Euro-harmony 5. Main theme 6. Gabriel’s humanist oboe 7. Musica de livello (quasi-) interno (‘source’ music)

4 4 Museme classification criteria Musemes are primarily ordered according to the order of their first appearance in the film. Musemes are also grouped according to their : 1.structural similarity of parameters of musical expression (tempo, rythmic and intevallic profile, timbre, harmony, pitch, articulation, etc.) 2.cinematic function (main themes, diegetic, non- diegetic, etc.) However... These taxonomic criteria inevitably produce some anomalies...

5 5 Museme 3A1a (‘Indigenous’ woodwind intermittence) is thematically related (by rhythmic and intevallic profile) to musemes 3B1-4 (Intermittent percussion blasts) et even to museme 6A (Hispanic turn). Museme 1A1(b) (Sick strings (2)) derives its rhythmic and intervallic profile from the main theme (m5 – Concorde et dignité). Thematic identity and unity versus specificity of musical expression 2 examples 1 2 Taxonomic priority is therefore given to parameters of musical expression rather than to aspects of thematic construction.

6 6 Introduction (4 slides) –Summary of main musematic categories –Taxonomic criteria –Thematic identity and expressive specificity The musemes (>30 slides) –7 categories with music examples and intertextual musical references (IOCM) Conclusions Presentation overview

7 7 The 7 main museme categories 1. Diaboli in musica 2. Danger drums & percussion 3. Intermittent bursts 4. Smooth Euro-harmony 5. Main theme 6. Gabriel’s humanist oboe 7. Musica de livello (quasi-) interno (‘source’ music)

8 8 1: Diaboli in musica (a) 1A. Sick strings 1A1. Sick semitones d) Mendoza’s jealousy (2) ongoing string screech IOCM: Penderecki: Thrénodie pour Hiroshima a) Letter to the pope b) Mendoza in prison IOCM : Bartók: Divertimento (II) ̶ fifths & fourths c) Mendoza’s jealousy (1) visceral string trills

9 9 1: Diaboli in musica (b) 1A3b. Visceral outburst a) Mendoza, in prison, threatens Gabriel b) Mendoza’s jealousy starts to erupt IOCM: shark music from Jaws 1B. Tangled woodwind Penance 1D. Tritones a) Mendoza’s increasing jealousy b) Guaraní puts a knife to Mendoza’s throat. c) Portuguese mercenaries hack through the jungle. IOCM: Handel: The people that walked in darkness (Messiah) Penance (reprise)

10 10 The 7 main museme categories 1. Diaboli in musica 2. Danger drums & percussion 3. Intermittent bursts 4. Smooth Euro-harmony 5. Main theme 6. Gabriel’s humanist oboe 7. Musica de livello (quasi-) interno (‘source’ music)

11 11 2A-B. Danger drums (1) 2A1. Death drum: (loop) cardinal’s letter; confronting Mendoza in jungle; blessing the mercenaries; as girl sees Guaraní shot on river; throughout both massacres and at very end of film, etc. 2A2. Miscellaneous single percussion hits Timpani, cymbal, low piano notes, etc. used in Mendoza’s jealousy and penance ; blessing the mercenaries ; battles and massacres 2B. Roulements de timbales Distant thunder/threat effect in: intro to Gabriel climbing the falls; Rodrigo buckling his sword, etc.. used for:

12 12 2C. Danger drums (2) ▬ The March of Death ▬ 1. Relentless plodding a) Mendoza marches to kill Felipe b) Blessing the mercenaries c) Mercenaries break camp to advance to the mission d) Mercenaries scaling the cliffs at Iguazu falls e) Mercenaries advancing towards the mission 2. Relentless riding and incitement a) Slaves dragged into Asunción b) “Ethnic” war drums

13 13 The 7 main museme categories 1. Diaboli in musica 2. Danger drums & percussion 3. Intermittent bursts 4. Smooth Euro-harmony 5. Main theme 6. Gabriel’s humanist oboe 7. Musica de livello (quasi-) interno (‘source’ music)

14 14 3A. Intermittent woodwind bursts (1) 3A1. ‘Ethnic’ instruments a) Panpipe punctuations and wood flute hoots used for: letter to Pope; Guaraní (jungle, start of film); slaves dragged into Asunción; war preparations; massacre 1; massacre 2, at end of film, etc. b) Panpipe breathy blast (‘martyrdom’) (loop) used for: letter to Pope; Guaraní (jungle, start of film; war preparations, etc.)...all these musemes are less common later in film... c) Shrill flute shrieks

15 15 3A. Intermittent woodwind bursts (2) 3A2. European instruments a) Shrill terror blast: only for massacres and battles b) Woodwind flutter Mystery alto flute Mystery clarinet seconds mainly for battle preparations c) Sour chord (min/maj) Sword practice Blessing the mercenaries (pizz.) Massacre 1 Rigging the canon (gtr.)

16 16 3B. Intermittent percussion bursts 1) Battle preparations: timpani (see 6D, Gabriel’s Oboe) 2) Mendoza’s jealousy: cymbal 3) Mendoza’s jealousy: timpani and toms 4) Sword practice: low piano notes 5) Blessing the mercenaries: timpani 6) Massacre 1: snare drum Musemes 3B1 to 3B4 relate thematically to m6A (the Hispanic turn)

17 17 The 7 main museme categories 1. Diaboli in musica 2. Danger drums & percussion 3. Intermittent bursts 4. Smooth Euro-harmony 5. Main theme 6. Gabriel’s humanist oboe 7. Musica de livello (quasi-) interno (‘source’ music)

18 18 4A1. Smooth Euro-harmonies (maj.) 4A1a. Slow rising parallel thirds over pedal point 1) Intro to brothers by the falls (main theme) 2) End of Mendoza’s penance : hope 3) Start of final credits (On Earth as it is in Heaven) 4A1b. Conjunct (hymnal) rising bass line a) On Earth as it is in Heaven (choir) b) Gabriel’s Oboe (strings) 4A1c. Classical conjunct falling bass line a) On Earth as it is in Heaven (choir) b) Gabriel’s Oboe (strings)

19 19 4A1* Euro-harmonies maj. - IOCM 4A1b. Classical conjunct rising bass line 1) Marcello: Oboe concerto in E $ (transp. to D) 4A1c. Classical conjunct falling bass line 2) Handel : ‘The Lord shall Arise’ (Messiah) 3) Gabriel’s Oboe mixed with (1), then (2) a) J.S. Bach : Air from Suite in D b) Bach (transposed) with On Earth as in Heaven c) Bach (transposed) with Gabriel’s Oboe

20 20 4A2. European major cadences 4A2a. Standard classical perfect cadences 1) End of main theme (Falls) 4A2b. Standard classical interrupted cadences 2) End of Gabriel’s Climb Gabriel’s Oboe 2 (the 2 brothers have just died) The cardinal leaves worldly matters and enters the mission church to celebrate mass 4A2c. Standard classical modulations

21 21 4A3. Euro liturgical harmonies 4A3a. Easter Alleluia (Laßt uns erfreuen : Geistliche Kirchengesang, Köln, 1623)  Gabriel’s climb (Falls) 4A3b. Sus4, plagal ‘Amen’ cadences and organist-style delay, on a 6/4 chord, of final tonic On Earth as in Heaven In all versions of main theme (m5) and of Gabriel’s Oboe (m6), especially just before the film’s epilogue ; also after “The beauty and power of the limb I had come to hack off” (cardinal).

22 22 4A4. Ethereal Euro harmonies (strings) Gabriel reaches the top of the falls (Climb) Mendoza’s hope in Remorse Rodrigo (Mendoza) reads St. Paul on Faith, Hope and Love

23 23 4A5. Euro-romantic harmonies 4A5a. Late C19 idiom for Brothers 4A5b. Special key change for Carlotta’s entrance 4A5c. Relief as tears turn to smiles after long penance at top of falls 4A5d. Top note and harmonic climax in Gabriel’s Oboe (A 9 7 at 75%) IOCM for harmonic climax chord. Handel: aria “He was despised and rejected” (Messiah) “a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief” (transposed)

24 24 4B. Euro-minor-key harmonies 1. Bitter loneliness (m add9 & $ 9) a) Carlotta does not love Rodrigo Mendoza b) “Excommunicated, cut off, cast out!” c) Carlotta : “you won’t hurt him, will you?” ( $ 9) IOCM Manha de carnaval (Bonfa) 2. Sorrow and tragedy Tears as Rodrigo’s penance is over above the falls Genocide in Massacre 1 Rodrigo has to kill a mercenary guard (same chords as when Rodrigo realises his loneliness after killing his brother) 3. Religious reflection Dies irae as Rodrigo reads the bible at night Cardinal enters mission church for mass

25 25 The 7 main museme categories 1. Diaboli in musica 2. Danger drums & percussion 3. Intermittent bursts 4. Smooth Euro-harmony 5. Main theme 6. Gabriel’s humanist oboe 7. Musica de livello (quasi-) interno (‘source’ music)

26 26 A. Concord and dignity 5. Main Theme (1) a.k.a. “Climb”, “Falls”, “Mission” Main title (Falls): pan pipe lead End of main titles (Falls): full orchestra The Climb: alto flute lead End of Remorse: flute lead Words of St. Paul: harp lead “Beauty... of the limb”: violin section Coda: Miserere mei: solo treble The Climb: introductory motif

27 27 A. Concord and dignity? 5A. Main theme ▬ IOCM a.k.a. “Climb”, “Falls”, “Mission” End of main theme (Falls): full orchestra The Crystals: And Then He Kissed Me (prod. Phil Spector, 1963) Mina: Se telefonando (Morricone, 1966) The 3-note idea 8-#7-5 ( g-f #- d in G) works on 6 of the major scale’s 7 different notes. Morricone uses 4: I (G) iii (Bm) vi (Em) IV (C) [I (G)] The same 3 notes, as ( c-b 8 -g in G), also fit over 6 of 7 notes in the major scale, e.g. g b e c a d [g]. different character for same 3 melody notes over different chords no clix!

28 28 B. Discord and distress 5B. Main theme variants 5B1. Confronting Mendoza during slave hunt in jungle (cf. 5B2. Remorse (1): Mendoza on prison floor 5B3. Remorse (2): Mendoza flares up and threatens Father Gabriel in prison scene 5B4. Battle preparations: distant trumpet

29 29 The 7 main museme categories 1. Diaboli in musica 2. Danger drums & percussion 3. Intermittent bursts 4. Smooth Euro-harmony 5. Main theme 6. Gabriel’s humanist oboe 7. Musica de livello (quasi-) interno (‘source’ music)

30 30 A. Hispanic turn (~) (no clix!) 6. Gabriel’s humanist oboe (1) 6A1. Gabriel attempts nervously to play oboe in jungle 6A2 (a) Guaraní take Gabriel by the hand (oboe) 6A3 (a) Hugs and smiles after Rodrigo’s penance and tears (cor anglais) 6A4 (a) Rodrigo’s new life starts at the mission (flute) 6A4 (b) The River: Guaraní paddle cardinal towards the mission (high flute solo, then standard flute with ‘coro illusoriamente etnico’) 6A3 (b) Rodrigo prepares to fight for justice (cor anglais  8  ) 6A2 (b, c) End credits (oboe + continuo, then choir)

31 31 A. Double-broderie hispanisante (~) 6. Gabriel’s Oboe (1) MCIO Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique - Scène aux champs (orig. key, then in D, then Gabriel’s Oboe) Mahler: Lied von der Erde - Abschied (original key, then in D with Gabriel’s Oboe)

32 32 B. Grace notes and appoggiature 6B-D. Gabriel’s humanist oboe (2) 1. On the fifth (mostly occur with the Hispanic turn, m6A1 ) 2. Straight, descending 3. Descending in triplets, etc. C. Aspiring leaps (rising sixths) 4 variants On flauto dolce D. As timpani figure (see also 3B1, 6B and 6C) rossini, grieg

33 33 Gabriel’s Oboe (m6) and delayed plagal cadences (m4A3) : IOCM Gabriel’s Oboe (the two brothers have just died) A sus4  A V  F # 3  Bm vi G  A sus4  A  IV  V  G IV interrupted cadence (1)delayed plagal cadence (2) DIDI Gabriel’s Oboe (II, entier) avec MCIO J.S. Bach: Air in D (m4A1c: conjunct descending bass line) ‘A man of sorrows’ (Handel): m4A5d(“and acquainted End of aria Nessun dorma from Puccini’s Turandot Gabriel’s Oboe finally gets to the tonic (D) with grief”) G IV DIDI together with the death drum (m2A1) ** *

34 34 The 7 main museme categories 1. Diaboli in musica 2. Danger drums & percussion 3. Intermittent bursts 4. Smooth Euro-harmony 5. Main theme 6. Gabriel’s humanist oboe 7. Musica de livello (quasi-) interno (‘source’ music)

35 35 A. Euro-referential (excl. Gabriel’s Oboe and ½-tone bells) 7. Source music (A-B) 7A1. La folía (string ensemble in mission building) 7A3. Gregorian plainsong in Jesuit closter 7A4. Baroque flute concerto in instrument workshop at the mission B. Ethno-referential (excl. ‘ethnic war drum’) 7B1a. Fiesta/carnaval music (by day) 7B1b. Fiesta/carnaval music (by night) 7B2. Celebratory dance after Rodrigo’s ordination 7B3. Waunana (Guaraní) chant on the river 7B4. Waunana (Guaraní) pipes and dancing to celebrate cardinal’s visit “Era un problema a farne un tutt’ uno” 7A2. Gabriel’s Oboe in jungle (see m6a1) 7a4??

36 36 C. Syncretic (pseudo-diegetic musics) “Era un problema a farne un tutt’uno” 7C1. Ave Maria Guaraní – solo treble; invisible string orchestra on square at Asunción 7C2. Ave Maria Guaraní - amateur choir 7C3. Te Deum Guaraní – amateur choir with invisible pan pipe ensemble 7C4. ‘Coro illusoriamente etnico’ 1: The River 7C5. ‘Coro illusoriamente etnico’ 2: End credits 7. Source music (C)

37 37 FIN Version 3 (Englsih), Philip Tagg, Montréal, April 2007 THE END


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