2 Gregorian Chant (800-1100) 9-12th Century 1st type of music to have been notated in the 10th Century.Full singing (plainchant) in a form of monophonic/Unison.Chants were learned by word of mouth.Originated from the Monastic Life (Monks).Chanted 9 times a day during religious services.Only sung by men and boys.
3 Medieval Period (1100-1400) 12-15th Century Music was an integral part of everyday life, specially during festivities and celebrations. Very important for people of this era.Cheery music/Folk music.Instruments: recorders, horns, trumpets, whistles, bells, and drumsHigh pitched music used to awaken spring (hibernating animals) pagan belief.Winter: Bells were used to celebrate the birth of Jesus.Music used during meals. A platform/stage was built in a great hall where people would sit and enjoy music as they ate their meals.
4 Middle Ages: Gregorian and Medieval Melody: Predominant and step wise. Mostly Stepping notes. Unison/monophonicRhythm: No regular meter; based on text.Harmony: Not present.Timbre: Gregorian is mainly vocal/voices and Medieval some wind instruments are used and percussion. Music is not notated.Form: Gregorian is Church music and Medieval music is very pagan, some religious, too.Expressive Controls: Not indicated.
5 Rennaissance (1400-1600) 15-17th Century. Time of rebirth: learning, science, and arts.Inventions” Printing press and compass.Melody: Based on church modes. More elegant and complex melodic lines.Rhythm: Not very strong rhythmic feeling.Harmony: Polyphony/ two or more lines played at the same time.Timbre: Same as Medieval with more strings.Form: Church music; dances.Dynamics: There are contrast in dynamics.Music was improvised/ made up on the spot.
6 Baroque Period (1600-1750) 17-18th Century Music is more organized, expresses order. Written and not improvised.Melody: Lively and tuneful, heavily ornamented.Rhythm: Steady and driving rhythm.Harmony: Established Major and minor key systems/Circle of fifths.Beginning of classical music through the counterpoint and cannon.Timbre: Developed new instruments and it was the beginning of an orchestra. Development of the string family.Form: Operas, Cantatas, Oratorios, Sonatas, concertos, fugue, and cannon.Expressive Controls: More dynamics used, emphasis on expression.
7 Classical PeriodMelody: 4 to 8 measures long phrases and built on chord tones.Rhythm: Consistent Rhythm and meter/time signaturesHarmony: more melodic and harmonic contrasts.Timbre: Orchestra expanded in size, range and complexity. The establishment of the symphonic orchestra.Form: Symphony, rondo-form, sonata allegro.Expression controls: Expressed feelings and emotions. Balanced dynamics and clear articulation.
8 Romantic PeriodMelodies: longer melodies and melodic ideas and musical themes.Rhythm: Consisted meters and some mixed meters/ changed of time signature.Harmony: Functional harmony, used of ½ steps in music / chromaticism.Timbre: Expansion of orchestra. Explored new sounds and possibilities. More powerful instruments.Form: Songs, program music, and the expansion of the symphony.Expressive controls: Tempo changes, greater dynamic variation, and more crescendos.
9 ImpressionismMelody: use of the pentatonic scale and melodic fragments.Rhythm: Unusual meters, avoiding the regular down beats.Harmony: 7th and 9th chords.Timbre: Delicate tone, harps, flutes, high strings were the favorite of this time.Form: Development of short melodic fragment.Expression controls: Dynamics tend to be quiet, freedom with tempos: very legato and smooth melodic lines.
10 Twentieth Century/Modern Melody: Experiment with new ideas, return to church modes.Rhythm: Variety of rhythms/polyrhythms.Harmony: Chords built on the 4th and 5th . Linear harmony.Timbre: electronic sounds and human sounds.Form: Free form, tied loosely different motives/expression. Jazz, Ragtime, Rock, Latin music, etc…Expressive Controls: Wide dynamic contrast.
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