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Instruments of the Orchestra Revision. There are 4 families of instruments in the orchestra:  Strings  Brass  Woodwind  Percussion.

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Presentation on theme: "Instruments of the Orchestra Revision. There are 4 families of instruments in the orchestra:  Strings  Brass  Woodwind  Percussion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instruments of the Orchestra Revision

2 There are 4 families of instruments in the orchestra:  Strings  Brass  Woodwind  Percussion

3 Strings – MAIN INSTRUMENTS  Violin  Viola  Cello  Double Bass  Harp

4 Strings – MAIN CONCEPTS  Arco  Pizzicato  Col Legno  Vibrato  Double Stopping  Tremolo/Tremolando

5  Arco – to play using the bow  Pizzicato – to pluck the strings with the fingers  Col legno – to play using the back (wooden side) of the bow  Double stopping – a bowing method where two strings are bowed at the same time producing two different notes  Tremolo/Tremolando – the rapid up and down movement of a bow on a stringed instrument creating a restless effect  Vibrato – rock the hand back and forth on the string to create a warmer sound

6  Trumpet  French Horn  Trombone  Tuba Brass – MAIN INSTRUMENTS

7 Brass – MAIN CONCEPTS  Blowing  Mute  Flutter Tonguing  Vibrato  Glissando

8  Blowing – to blow into the mouthpiece of an instrument to create the sound  Mute – a cone shaped device which alters the sound of the instrument, making it quieter  Flutter Tonguing – the player rolls the letter ‘r’  Glissando – where as many notes as possible are played by sliding between the notes  Vibrato – a slight wavering in pitch to bring warmth to the tone

9 Woodwind – MAIN INSTRUMENTS  Piccolo  Flute  Oboe  Cor Anglais  Clarinet  Bassoon  Saxophone – SopranoAltoTenorBaritone

10 Woodwind – MAIN CONCEPTS  Blowing  Flutter Tonguing  Vibrato  Reed

11  Reed – a small piece of wood placed on the mouthpiece of woodwind on the mouthpiece of woodwind instruments to help create their instruments to help create their sound sound

12 Percussion – MAIN INSTRUMENTS TunedPiano Tubular bells XylophoneGlockenspielTimpani Un-tuned Drum kit WoodblockCastanetsTriangleTambourineCymbals

13 Percussion– MAIN CONCEPTS  Striking

14 Keyboard Instruments  Organ – found in churches, usually have foot pedals & pipes  Harpsicord – used in Baroque period performing ornaments and bass lines (continuo). Strings are plucked rather than hammered.  Piano (pianoforte) – used from the Classical period onwards. Can perform/accompany sonatas.  Synthesizer – an electronic keyboard found in modern music.

15 Types of Guitar  Acoustic – non-electric with 6 strings which can be strummed or plucked (fingers/plectrum)  Electric – as acoustic but uses an amplifier to produce sound  Slide – a method of guitar playing using a metal tube or bottle neck to slide across the frets. Found in country and western music.  Bass – and electric 4 stringed guitar which produces low pitched notes. Performs riffs/bass lines.

16  Distortion – an electronic effect used to alter the sound of an electric guitar, making it sound harsh  Delay – an electronic effect used to repeat the sound over and over like an echo  Reverb – an electronic effect which gives the impression of different hall atmospheres  Slapping – a method of playing the bass guitar where the thumb is used to hit the side of the strings Electronic Concepts

17  ORNAMENTS – a decoration of the melody to add melodic and rhythmic interest:  Trill – the rapid alteration of two adjacent notes  Grace note -a short note played before the main note of the melody  Drum fill – a rhythmic decoration played on the drum kit

18 Bands & Groups  String Quartet – 2 x violins, viola & cello  Chamber Music – music composed for a small group of instruments & performed in a small venue  Pipe Band – Bagpipes, bass drum & snare drum, performs Scottish music to march to  Scottish Dance Band – fiddle, accordion, keyboard, bass & drums, performs Scottish dances at Ceilidhs

19 Bands & Groups  Orchestra – all 4 sections of the orchestra performing orchestral music  Wind/Military Band – woodwind, brass & percussion, often performs marching music  Brass Band – brass & percussion only  Steel Band – steel drums & drum kit, from the Caribbean  Folk Group – singers & instrumentalists performing traditional music

20 Bands & Groups  Pop Group – guitars, vocals, keyboards & drum kit, performs popular ‘chart’ music  Rock Band – as above but with a heavy, driving beat  Jazz Group – instruments include: saxophone, drums, piano, brass (trumpet), improvisation is a feature  Big Band – instruments include: trumpets, trombones, saxophones & a rhythm section of guitars, bass & piano, performs jazz/ swing

21 Jazz Styles  Blues – African/American folk music, slow in tempo, 4 beats in a bar & strophic. Used blues scale – C Eb F Gb G Bb C - & 12 bar blues chord progression: I I I I IV IV I I V IV I I  Ragtime – used vamped left hand (oom-cha) & syncopated melody, e.g. The Entertainer.

22 Jazz Styles  Dixieland – written for a small ensemble consisting of rhythm section – piano, banjo, drums, tuba/bass (pizzicato walking bass) - & front line – trumpet, clarinet, trumpet & saxophone – performing improvises passages  Scat singing – nonsense words, syllables and sounds improvised by a singer, e.g. do-wap-a-doobie-doobie

23 Jazz Styles  Boogie-Woogie – a jazz style for the piano with the left hand playing an ostinato in broken octaves while the right hand improvises:  Swing – big band style using the following rhythm:

24 Jazz Styles  Walking bass – a bass line where each note has the same value, usually crotchets, & moves mainly in step, performed by piano, tuba or double bass (pizzicato)

25 Orchestral Styles  Symphony – a large work for orchestra, usually in 4 movements – fast, slow, minuet & trio, & fast (classical period)  Concerto – work for solo instrument + orchestra (piano concerto, violin concerto, etc), normally 3 movements. The soloist can ‘show off’ their technical ability in a cadenza, performing scales, fast running passages and ornaments, often ending in a trill.

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