The Development Section Bars 101-164 Based entirely on the opening figure from the first subject. That’s this bit, here!
Bars 101-105 Follows a single G minor chord Chromatic chord (G#- B-D-F = Diminished 7 th ) leads to a woodwind chordal and scalic descent in to F# minor (remote key) before the violins enter with the theme 1 2 3 F# Min
Bars 103-114 First 4 bars of the first subject are played 4 times, in octaves, in the first violins. Played as a descending sequence. Chromatic harmony (Example = Chromatic chords in the Bassoons, bars 107-114) 107
Bars 114-120 Bars 114-115 = V-I in E minor (modulated) Violas, cellos and Bassoons have the theme. Violins have a countermelody. This is played staccato to contrast with the legato theme. Woodwind provides chordal harmony. In Bar 118, we modulate to A minor and the melody and countermelody switch over. 118
Bars 120-128 Bar 120D minor Bar 122G minor Bar 124C major Bar 126F major Bar 128Bb major o See next slide for the score to show the above. o Music rises by 4 notes every time we modulate. o Constant exploration of different keys is a major feature of the development section. Pay attention, we have a bit more to do.... Hush there, Goldendoodle! They are trying to concentrate and you are very cute and distracting
Bars 134-138 Repeated A in the bassoon, violas and cellos form a dominant pedal (in D minor) The repeated A’s in the violins add to the effect.
Bars 139-164 Texture is reduced, using the first 3 notes of the first subject as a motif. The motif is passed around the woodwind and strings, creating a dialogue effect. Various pedals are used in this passage, first by bassoons, then the horns, then the bassoons take over again until the start of the recapitulation. F pedalDominant of Bb minor G pedalDominant of C minor D pedalDominant of G minor (tonic key) Dramatically reduced texture F pedal in the bassoon Motif from First subject
Bars 139-164 continued... Bars 153-160 = forte passage. Powerful dialogue between upper and lower strings. Tension is provided by the dominant pedal (D) which only gets resolved at the start of the recapitulation. 1 2 3
And that is all for the development section. Only the recapitulation and the coda to go. We are over halfway there folks! That’s OK Mozart, I quite like this symphony and it’s innovative display of unusual harmonic tension for the time.
The Recapitulation Not just a direct repeat of the exposition – The bridge is extended and the coda is far more developed than would be expected..... Bars 164-184 are a direct repeat of bars 1-20 in the exposition
Bars 184-227: The Bridge Passage. 51 bars long this time, instead of 24! The function of the bridge section in the exposition is to modulate key between the 1 st and 2 nd subject. This is not necessary in the development as the 2 nd subject will be in the tonic key. So.... Mozart uses this opportunity to further develop the thematic material. The bridge is needed to provide structural balance to the piece as a whole – A Classical ideal.
Bars 184-227: The Bridge Passage cont... Bar 184-191: Theme begins as expected but almost instantly modulates to Eb major (Look for Ab’s). V-I cadence in 190-191 Bars 191-227: Tutti section. Strong forte section heard in the exposition. Theme is split between upper and lower strings in alternating passages. Unlike bar 28 in the exposition, we now have a quaver bass countermelody going against the theme.
Bars 184-227: The Bridge Passage cont... Bars 198-211: The parts swap over (as we have seen happen before) Music modulates through F minor (bar 198), Eb minor (bar 205), reaching the home key at bar 211. Bars 211-227 = Bars 28-43 of the exposition, except we remain in the tonic key this time. Bar 221-225: Dominant pedal (D) in cellos, horn and bassoon preparing for the second subject. Bar 226: Bar of rest for dramatic pause/anticipation.
Bars 227-260: The Second Subject. Starts on the tonic key. Theme is shared between the strings and woodwind (like in the exposition). Reduced texture, dynamics. Bars 241-245: Short passage modulating to Eb major with a dominant pedal in the cellos and horns. Bars 245-251: Rising one bar sequences (look at the bass). Bars 252-254: Perfect cadence (Ic – V – I). Bars 254-260 = Bars 66-72, but now in G minor (Tonic).
The Coda: Bars 260-299 Bar 260-276: 3-note motif from the exposition is passed between the clarinet, bassoon and flute, with 2 note motif augmented in the violas and cellos.
The Coda: Bars 276-299 Scalic flourish building towards the expected final cadence. ff passage is interrupted with p woodwind chords, with glimpses of the first subject in the second violins. This is then passed around the first violins, cellos, flutes, clarinets and bassoons.
The Coda: Bars 293-299 Final Tutti, homophonic of chords I and V. Finishes with 4 emphatic full stops (G minor chords). Last 6-bars corresponds with the last 6-bars of the exposition. IVIIIIVI I IVV
And that’s all Folks! Now go and listen to the whole thing, both with the score and looking at your notes. Then answer the questions on page 33 I hope you enjoyed my 40 th Symphony!