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Ch 22 PPT “The Ordeal of Reconstruction” 1865-1877.

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1 Ch 22 PPT “The Ordeal of Reconstruction”

2 Problems of Peace: 1865–1877 Rebel leaders given jail terms (Pres. Johnson pardoned rebel leaders in 1868) Transportation system broke down. Banks and businesses had closed. Slave-labor system collapsed. Cotton fields with weeds. Planter aristocrats reduced to poverty. Their investment in slaves evaporated. Radical Republicans take control of policy in 1866 ( conservative white democrats regained power in each state by 1877)

3 TMWK CH Pg 482 Picture How is being a freedmen different from being a slave? 2. Pg 487 Picture How is this different from being in slavery?

4 Black Codes 1865: Blacks Codes designed to regulate the affairs of emancipated Blacks - aimed to ensure a stable and subservient labor force. 1865: Blacks Codes designed to regulate the affairs of emancipated Blacks - aimed to ensure a stable and subservient labor force. Strong penalties for those who broke labor contracts. Had right to marry. Could not serve on jury; some barred from owning or leasing land. Could be punished for idleness - subjected to work in a chain gang. Many Blacks became sharecropper farmers. Response: Freedmen’s Bureau and Civil Rights Bill

5 Are They Truly Free? Emancipation was uneven and slow. Some Blacks attempting to move to freedom were murdered. Some Southerners resisted/protested emancipation until it was lawful (legally passed by the govt) Tens of thousands went in search of family members and to test their freedom through 1880: 25,000 Blacks from Louisiana, Texas, and Miss. moved to Kansas. Steam boat capts. began to refuse to transport these “Exodusters” across the Miss. River. Blacks formed own churches – became a focal point of Black community life. Education for Blacks – societies for self improvement

6 Freedman’s Bureau (expired in 1872 March 1865: Congress created Freedmen’s Bureau lead by Union General Oliver O. Howard. March 1865: Congress created Freedmen’s Bureau lead by Union General Oliver O. Howard. 1st type of welfare program in the U.S. 1st type of welfare program in the U.S. Made to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education to both freedmen and white refugees. Made to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education to both freedmen and white refugees. Greatest success was in education – taught Blacks how to read. Greatest success was in education – taught Blacks how to read. Authorized to settle former slaves on 40 acres of land, but little land made it into their hands. Authorized to settle former slaves on 40 acres of land, but little land made it into their hands. However, some Blacks would be convinced to sign labor contracts to work for their former “masters.” However, some Blacks would be convinced to sign labor contracts to work for their former “masters.” Pres. Andrew Johnson, who shared Southern Supremacist feelings, tried to end Freedman’s Bureau. Pres. Andrew Johnson, who shared Southern Supremacist feelings, tried to end Freedman’s Bureau.

7 Union General Oliver O. Howard

8 Freedman’s Bureau

9 Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes: “Plenty to eat and nothing to do.”

10 Freedmen’s Bureau School

11 TMWK 3. Political Cartoon pg 488 What is the political cartoon depicting? Is it for or against something or someone?

12 Johnson: “The Tailor President” Came from poverty: was an orphan. Came from poverty: was an orphan. Moved to Tennessee - elected to Congress Moved to Tennessee - elected to Congress as Democrat. as Democrat. Gained attention when he didn’t want to secede along with his state of Tennessee. Gained attention when he didn’t want to secede along with his state of Tennessee. Johnson was a Southern Democrat: Vice-Pres in the Union Party (but pro-slavery) as Republicans needed to attract support from War Democrats. Johnson was a Southern Democrat: Vice-Pres in the Union Party (but pro-slavery) as Republicans needed to attract support from War Democrats. Wasn’t popular as president – didn’t fit in with North or South. Wasn’t popular as president – didn’t fit in with North or South. Wasn’t interested in giving freedmen civil rights. Wasn’t interested in giving freedmen civil rights.

13 Plans for Reconstruction 1863 Lincoln’s 10% Reconstruction Plan: a state could re-enter the Union when 10% of its voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation. Next, a formal setting up of a state govt. Republican Opposition In Congress: Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill which required 50% of a state’s voters take the oath of allegiance. Lincoln vetoed it. Thus some felt rebel states should be restored to the Union simply and swiftly while others felt the South should be punished and their social structure uprooted

14 Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan May 1865: Pres Johnson agreed with Lincoln. He passed his own Reconstruction proclamation to quickly allow Southern states to re-enter the Union. May 1865: Pres Johnson agreed with Lincoln. He passed his own Reconstruction proclamation to quickly allow Southern states to re-enter the Union. disenfranchised leading Confederates - including those with taxable property worth more than $20,000. disenfranchised leading Confederates - including those with taxable property worth more than $20,000. Called for special state conventions - required to repeal the ordinances of secession Called for special state conventions - required to repeal the ordinances of secession ratify the slave-freeing 13 Amendment ratify the slave-freeing 13 Amendment repudiate all Confederate debts repudiate all Confederate debts  State who complied with the plan could be readmitted to the Union

15 Congressional Reconstruction Two factions: majoritymoderate who sided with Lincoln. Minority radical group thought South should pay. Two factions: majority were moderate who sided with Lincoln. Minority radical group thought South should pay. Republicans didn’t want to give up political advantage to rebellious Democrats. ( Republicans had passed the Morrill Tariff, Pacific Railroad Act, Homestead Act). Republicans didn’t want to give up political advantage to rebellious Democrats. ( Republicans had passed the Morrill Tariff, Pacific Railroad Act, Homestead Act). Republican concern: South is stronger politically because blacks now count for one person instead of 3/5’s (12 more votes in Congress, 12 more in presidential electoral votes) Republican concern: South is stronger politically because blacks now count for one person instead of 3/5’s (12 more votes in Congress, 12 more in presidential electoral votes)

16 Johnson Clashes with Congress Pres. Johnson vetoed Freedmen’s Bureau Bill – Congress re-passes it. March 1866: Congress passed Civil Rights Bill: gave Blacks the privilege of American citizenship – Johnson vetoes it, but then Congress steamrollered over veto by 2/3 majority. 14 Amendment – Gave Blacks citizenship to make sure South wouldn’t be able to repeal the Civil Rights Bill. (reduced representation of a state if denied Blacks the ballot) 14 Amendment – Gave Blacks citizenship to make sure South wouldn’t be able to repeal the Civil Rights Bill. (reduced representation of a state if denied Blacks the ballot) Blacks still not given the right to vote, but Radical Republicans agreed that all states had to ratify the amendment to remain in the Union.

17 Republican Control of Congress Radicals: led by Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens - want to keep South out of the Union as long as possible and to bring about a social and economic transformation. Radicals: led by Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens - want to keep South out of the Union as long as possible and to bring about a social and economic transformation. Moderates: (the majority) wanted quicker reconstruction/re-uniting Moderates: (the majority) wanted quicker reconstruction/re-uniting Both agreed upon the necessity to enfranchise Black voters. Both agreed upon the necessity to enfranchise Black voters. They would both compromise They would both compromise

18 Charles Sumner & Thaddeus Stevens Senate House

19 TMWK 4. Pg 491 Map During Reconstruction, how was the South divided up? 5. Pg 491 Chart What two years were most of the South readmitted to representation in Congress? (thus gaining political power) 6. Pg 491 Chart What are “Redeemer” regimes?

20 Reconstruction by Sword March 1867: Reconstruction Act - divided the South into 5 military zones March 1867: Reconstruction Act - divided the South into 5 military zones Laid guidelines for readmission of states: Laid guidelines for readmission of states: Must accept 14 th amendment: freedmen given citizenship Must accept 14 th amendment: freedmen given citizenship 15 th Amendment: gave blacks right to vote in 1869; Results in South - Black migration out of the South and West. 15 th Amendment: gave blacks right to vote in 1869; Results in South - Black migration out of the South and West. Women: Amendments did not give women suffrage. Women: Amendments did not give women suffrage.

21 5 Military Districts

22 Civil War Amendments 13 th Amendment: 13 th Amendment: 14 th : 14 th : 15 th : 15 th :

23 Civil War Amendments 13 th Amendment: Slavery is prohibited in U.S. or any part controlled by it 13 th Amendment: Slavery is prohibited in U.S. or any part controlled by it 14 th : All people born in U.S. are citizens at place of their birth (Civil Rights Amendment) 14 th : All people born in U.S. are citizens at place of their birth (Civil Rights Amendment) 15 th : Citizen’s right to vote won’t be denied or taken away due to race, color, or previous slave status 15 th : Citizen’s right to vote won’t be denied or taken away due to race, color, or previous slave status

24 Reconstruction in the South  Having gained right to vote, Southern Black men began to organize politically through the Union League.  Union League: network of political clubs that educated members in civic duties and campaigned for Republican candidates.  Other purposes: Build Black churches and schools, represent Black grievances in workplace and govt, recruit militias to protect Black communities from White retaliators.  Black men began serving in Congress  Southerners hated seeing former slaves hold higher positions than they  There was contempt for both groups in the South

25 Black Political Participation : 14 Black Congressman and 2 Black Senators served in D.C. Former slaves holding office angered plantation owners. Southerners lashed out at White allies of the Blacks, calling them “scalawags”- Southern Whites supporting Reconstruction & the Republican party and “carpetbaggers”-Northerners who settled in South after Civil War as Republican political appointees and for financial gain. Steps taken to establish adequate public schools. Property rights guaranteed to women.

26 Scalawags and Carpetbaggers Scalawags and Carpetbaggers

27 Black Reconstruction

28 Ku Klux Klan: “Invisible Empire of the South.” Secret organization began 1866 in Tennessee: angry over Blacks being successful as legislators. Secret organization began 1866 in Tennessee: angry over Blacks being successful as legislators. Dedicated to scaring blacks into not voting or seeking employment. Dedicated to scaring blacks into not voting or seeking employment. Committed Violence: floggings, mutilations, murders. Committed Violence: floggings, mutilations, murders : To protect voting rights Congress passed Force Acts - Federal troops used to stamp out violence of KKK : To protect voting rights Congress passed Force Acts - Federal troops used to stamp out violence of KKK Starting in stopped Blacks from voting by intimidation, fraud, and imposing literacy tests, and poll tax. Starting in stopped Blacks from voting by intimidation, fraud, and imposing literacy tests, and poll tax.

29 The Ku Klux Klan

30 Secretary of War: Edwin M. Stanton

31 Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Impeachment: F ormal process which an official is accused of unlawful activity Impeachment: F ormal process which an official is accused of unlawful activity 1867 Congress passes Tenure of Office Act: Law required Pres to get approval of Senate before he could remove his appointees. (fire anyone) 1867 Congress passes Tenure of Office Act: Law required Pres to get approval of Senate before he could remove his appointees. (fire anyone) Congress did this to keep Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, who was a Republican spy in office. Congress did this to keep Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, who was a Republican spy in office Johnson dismisses Stanton, then House of Representatives immediately voted to impeach Johnson for “high crimes and misdemeanors” – for violating the Tenure of Office Act Johnson dismisses Stanton, then House of Representatives immediately voted to impeach Johnson for “high crimes and misdemeanors” – for violating the Tenure of Office Act.

32 Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson Johnson advised not to testify by his lawyers Johnson advised not to testify by his lawyers Johnson’s counsel claimed Tenure of Office Act was unconstitutional Johnson’s counsel claimed Tenure of Office Act was unconstitutional May 1868, Johnson acquitted of charges by one vote (7 out of 6 votes) May 1868, Johnson acquitted of charges by one vote (7 out of 6 votes) Radicals were enraged by the acquittal, but other politicians feared setting the precedent of removing the president of office by impeachment Radicals were enraged by the acquittal, but other politicians feared setting the precedent of removing the president of office by impeachment

33 1867 Purchase of Alaska Secretary William H. Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. (2 cents per acre) Secretary William H. Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. (2 cents per acre) People laughed at him and called it “Seward’s Folly” People laughed at him and called it “Seward’s Folly” Not until gold and oil were discovered was the purchase of Alaska considered to be a bargain Not until gold and oil were discovered was the purchase of Alaska considered to be a bargain Admitted as a state in Admitted as a state in Why did Russia want to sell Alaska to the U.S.? They were afraid it would fall into British hands. Why did Russia want to sell Alaska to the U.S.? They were afraid it would fall into British hands.

34 The Purchase of Alaska

35 The Heritage of Reconstruction ( ) Many Southerners regarded reconstruction as worse than the Civil War Many Southerners regarded reconstruction as worse than the Civil War War destroyed the South’s system of society War destroyed the South’s system of society Republicans failed to improve conditions of the South Republicans failed to improve conditions of the South Conditions for blacks would remain difficult for at least another century until the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950’s & 60’s Conditions for blacks would remain difficult for at least another century until the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950’s & 60’s

36 Post Reconstruction Era By 1877: Southern white resistance and withdrawal of federal supervision brought about the "redemption" of the South – Redeemer governments. African Americans were disenfranchised. The redemption measures enforced greater racial separation and increased white intimidation and violence.

37 President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)  Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (they could apply directly to Johnson)  In new constitutions, they must accept minimum conditions repudiating slavery, secession, and state debts.  Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions. EFFECTS? 1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates. 2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations. 3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!

38 Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony


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