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Chapter 22: The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865-1877.

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1 Chapter 22: The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865-1877

2 The Problems of Peace What were some major issues that Reconstruction had to deal with? What happened to Jefferson Davis? What happened to all rebel leaders is 1868? Describe the major cities of the South. How did the south fare economically after the war? Why was agriculture in the South crippled? How did the planter aristocracy fare after the war? How did Southerners react to the North? Freedmen Define Freedom How did the process of Emancipation look for slaves? How do the many responses to emancipation illustrate the master- slave relationship? How did former slaves react to their new found freedom? How did emancipation help strengthen slave families? Who were the exodusters? What role did church play in the lives of freed slaves? What role did education play in the lives of freed slaves?

3 The Freedmen’s Bureau Why did Congress create the Freedmen’s Bureau? What services did the Freedmen’s Bureau provide? What was the Bureau’s greatest success? In what ways were the Bureau’s accomplishments meager? Johnson: The Tailor President Describe Johnson’s rise to the presidency. Why was Johnson chosen as Lincoln’s vice president? What did Johnson believe in? Why was Johnson considered a misfit?

4 Presidential Reconstruction What was Lincoln’s belief in relation to the South withdrawing from the Union? Describe Lincoln’s 10% reconstruction plan. Why didn’t Congress like Lincoln’s plan. Describe the Wade-Davis Bill. What did the Wade-Davis Bill reveal about Lincoln and the Congress? What Republican factions were forming at this time? How did Johnson respond to Lincoln’s reconstruction plan? What did Johnson’s reconstruction proclamation include? Why did Johnson grant pardons in abundance? The Baleful Black Codes What was the purpose of the Black Codes? What did the Black Codes have in common? What penalties were imposed for breaking Black Codes? What other restrictions were places on African Americans? How did the Black Codes impact the society of African Americans for generations to come?

5 Congressional Reconstruction Who showed up from the South for the Congressional Session in 1865? Why did this infuriate the Republicans? Why were the Republicans alarmed about the future of politics now that the South would be reunited with the Union? Why were Republicans worried about the South or the Democrats taking control of Congress? Johnson Clashes with Congress What did Johnson do in 1866 that angered the Republican Congress? How did Congress respond to Johnson’s vetoes? Why did Congress want to place the principles of the Civil Rights Bill in the Constitution? What did the proposed amendment include? What did the Fourteenth Amendment leave out?

6 Swinging ‘Round the Circle with Johnson What was the root of the controversy between Johnson and Congress? Why was the Congressional election of 1866 important? What outcome did Johnson want for the 1866 congressional elections? What was Johnson’s famous “swing ‘round the circle”? Was Johnson successful? Why or why not? Republican Principles and Programs What did radical Republican congressmen want? Who were two important radical Republican congressmen and what did they fight for? Why did the radicals want to keep the South out as long as possible? What did moderate Republicans want?

7 Reconstruction by the Sword Why did Congress pass the Reconstruction Act? What did the Reconstruction Act say? What conditions did congress state were necessary for readmission to the Union? Why did congress want to give freed men the vote? What is stated in the Fifteenth Amendment? Why was military reconstruction problematic and possibly illegal? Was military reconstruction successful? Why or why not? No Women Voters Why did the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments disappoint women? Why was the Fourteenth amendment specially shocking? What did Stanton and Anthony want added to the Fifteenth Amendment?

8 The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South What did Lincoln and Johnson believe in relation to freedmen voting? Why did white Southerners believe that Northern Republicans were hypocritical? Once given the vote, what did Southern Black men do? What new political roles were obtained by African American women? How did African American men elected as delegates to state constitutional conventions hold greater political authority? Who were “scalawags” and “carpetbaggers”? What did the new radical regimes do well? What were some issues with the new radical regimes? The Ku Klux Klan Why did some whites resort to savage measures? What did members of the Ku Klux Klan do? How did the KKK impact citizens in the South? What were the Force Acts and were they effective? How did white resistance impact African Americans?

9 Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank Why and How did Radicals attack Johnson? What was the purpose of the Tenure of Office Act? How did Johnson respond to the Tenure of Office Act and what was the outcome of this move? A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson Who lead the prosecution? What was Johnson’s main argument against impeachment? Who argued for the prosecution? What was the outcome of the trial? What factors shaped the outcome? How did the nation respond to the outcome of the trial? Why would impeachment have set a dangerous precedent?

10 The Purchase of Alaska Why did Russia want to sell Alaska? Why did Russia prefer the US to any other purchaser? Why did the country consider the purchase of Alaska “Seward’s Folly”? Why did the US buy Alaska? The Heritage of Reconstruction How did many white Southerners regard Reconstruction? Why was reconstruction not more harsh? What were the goals of the Republican party and how did this work out? In what ways was the old South resurrected instead of reconstructed?

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