Presentation on theme: "Background in America By Donnchá O’Herlihy. Today the worlds most powerful country. Not always the case. The New World When Columbus discovered America."— Presentation transcript:
Background in America By Donnchá O’Herlihy
Today the worlds most powerful country. Not always the case. The New World When Columbus discovered America the Spanish claimed all the north. Other countries did not accept this! The French – took Canada and parts of Louisiana. The English – took the east coast.
1 st settled in area called Virginia after Queen Elizabeth (the Virgin Queen) In 1620 group called Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Virginia but their ship was blown off course where they landed in Massachusetts. The winter there was hard some starved and froze but the native Americans helped by planting a good harvest. American celebrate this day as Thanksgiving as of the survival of the Pilgrim Fathers In 1760 there was 13 colonies in all.
2.5 million living in the 13 colonies 2 million were Europeans mostly British and Irish When they arrived they took the land from the natives Some were also killed by disease and war Americans were slaves they were captured in Africa and enslaved to white Americans
King and Canada In 1760 became king of Britain, Ireland & the thirteen colonies. Britain was often in war against France, 1756 went to war again and captured Canada Forced Americans to pay the taxes. Colonists protested against tax it was unfair that people 3000 miles away could tax them. British ignored protest and introduced the stamp act taxes on documents, wills also on playing cards (on Paper) Colonists protested they made a resistance there slogan was ‘No Taxation Without Representation’ Their protest was successful the act was dropped but there was a new tax on imported goods i.e. Tea Colonist didn't like this either they organised a boycott against British goods One of towns which protested against British policies was Boston Stamp Act
Boston in Massachusetts one of the main towns that led protest Soldiers called REDCOATS because of their uniform were here Citizens got on very bad with the soldiers 5 th March 1770 commotion broke out between the citizens and redcoats soldiers opened fire 5 killed 7 injured Eventually British ended the taxation but kept tea to show that they had the power to tax them American then began to smuggle tea
EAST INDIA COMPANY Tea came from them Was in deep financial trouble Lowered price of tax Now cheaper than smuggled tea Merchants would lose money if smuggling ended Held a protest meeting, a group of men dressed up as Indians would get aboard three tea ships in harbour and empty tea into sea Estimated enough tea to make 24 million cups To punish Boston British parliament closed the port and reduced power of Massachusetts (intolerable acts) After the act 12 colonies held a meeting that they would boycott against British goods until the act was removed
In Boston some citizens were arming to rebel British sent a general to restore order in Boston He learned that the rebelling citizens had large arms in Concord so the general decided to seize the arms and arrest the rebel leaders 18 th of April 1775 the British sent 700 troops to Concord The rebels had learned about their plans and warned their people The next morning the rebels clashed with the British troops. Some rebels were injured and even killed Later that day another battle broke out the British were forced to retreat to Boston The Americans had now Boston under siege
When the war began At the time it seemed likely that the British would win as they were the most powerful A quarter of the colonies stayed loyal to the British ( Tories or Loyalists) Colonies against the British were known as patriots They did not have a trained army or leader Divided among themselves 13 colonies had different aims Few believed that they could beat the British George Washington as commander in chief of the American army The distance between Britain and America. Made it difficult for Britain to supply its soldiers with food, guns and ammunition France joined in on the side of the Americans in 1778 Reasons for defeating the British
Born in Virginia in 1732 Served in the British Forces fighting the French Supported the Patriot side Went to meeting against the intolerable acts The people at the meeting where impressed by his common sense and his military experience In June 1775 when the congress decided to form an army against the British they chose him to be commander in chief.
The American were doing well in the war One army defeated the British at Saratoga in New York State When news of the victory reached Europe King Louis XVI of France decided the Americans might win He declared war on Britain He wanted revenge after the British’s conquest on Canada Their help was vital to the Americans The French navy made it hard to bring guns and ammunition to their soldiers The British then had to remove troops from America to protect other parts of the British Empire
Washington trapped a British army under commander Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown A French fleet arrived off the coast and prevented the British navy from rescuing Cornwallis He had no choice but surrender on 19 th October 1781 He refused to meet Washington so sent his second in command general O’Hara, Washington sent his second in command General Benjamin Lincoln to accept British surrender The British had lost their American colonies
November 1782 a peace treaty signed at the French kings palace at Versailles The first article of the treaty stated: His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the said United States...to be free sovereign and independent states, that he treats with them as such, and for himself, his heirs, and successors, relinquishes all claims to the government, propriety, and territorial rights of the same and every part thereof The treaty came into effect a year later On 25 th on November 1783 the last British troops left America