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The DRC’s Civil War (1998-2003). Presidents 1965-1997Mobutu 1997-2001Laurent Kabila 2001-presentJoseph Kabila.

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Presentation on theme: "The DRC’s Civil War (1998-2003). Presidents 1965-1997Mobutu 1997-2001Laurent Kabila 2001-presentJoseph Kabila."— Presentation transcript:

1 The DRC’s Civil War ( )

2 Presidents Mobutu Laurent Kabila 2001-presentJoseph Kabila

3 Causes  Rwandan genocide / Political (pro- vs. anti- Kabila)  1994: Hutus in E. Congo  receive Mobutu’s support  1996: Rwanda invades & wins  1997: Rwanda + Uganda oust Mobutu & install Laurent Kabila  Kabila turns against Rwanda and supports Hutus  1998: Rwanda starts war vs. Kabila  Economic – control of mineral wealth

4 Sides

5 Sides – Africa’s International War Government forces AngolaZimbabweNamibia Chad, Libya, Sudan Pro-Kabila rebel groups: Hutu & Mai-Mai RebelsUgandaRwanda Anti-Kabila rebel groups: MLC, RCD – Goma, RCD – ML

6 Sides – Countries’ Motives  Angola: o fighting Unita rebels, whose home base was in S. Congo o believed Uganda & Rwanda had ties to Unita o previously fought Mobutu  supported L. Kabila  Zimbabwe: o unclear … said they wanted to support DRC’s legit. gov‘t., but Mugabe may have wanted regional influence and/or mineral wealth  Namibia: family of pres. involved in Congolese mining  Chad: encouraged by France; regain influence in DRC  Libya: $$$; break int’l. isolation  Sudan: minor presence; sent a few transport planes

7 Sides – Countries’ Motives  Uganda: o destroy Ugandan rebel bases / protect borders (stated reason, but not a great one … these rebels were much less of a threat than Rwanda’s situation) o mineral wealth  Rwanda: o wipe out Hutu genocidaires in E. Congo

8 Course - Events  1998: war starts  1999: failed peace attempt  b/c of mineral wealth  2001: Laurent Kabila assassinated  Joseph K. takes over  2003: war ends

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10 Course - Features  most fighting in east DRC  child soldiers  militias / guerilla warfare (vs. organized armies & open battles)  less advanced weaponry: machetes, stones, even garden tools

11 Consequences  new constitution  power-sharing gov’t.  human cost  3m lives lost  3.4m refugees in DRC; 2m in neighboring countries  40,000 cases of rape

12 Continuing Conflict  2004: 2 coup attempts  2008: renewed fighting in east  Rwandan Hutus vs. DRC gov’t.  Laurent Nkunda (Congolese Tutsi) wreaks havoc (against Hutus & DRC gov’t)  2009: gov’t. invites Rwanda in to fight Hutu militias & arrest Nkunda

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