Presentation on theme: "Presentation at the Trinity Development Research Week Dublin, 10 Nov. 2010 By Arnold Kashembe University of Limerick."— Presentation transcript:
Presentation at the Trinity Development Research Week Dublin, 10 Nov By Arnold Kashembe University of Limerick
Great lakes Region
D.R. Congo: Brief History The population of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is estimated at around 60 million. After Algeria, it is the largest country in Africa with 2,345,410 sq Km. The DRC is richly endowed with natural resources, including diamonds, which are its most valuable export. Other valuable mineral assets include gold, copper, cobalt, zing, Uranium, casserite and coltan. It also has enormous timber resources.
1885: Congo Free State The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization called Association Internationale Africaine. Leopold was the sole shareholder and chairman, exploiting the state for rubber, copper and other minerals.
Belgian Congo In 1908, Congo Free State became the Belgian Congo, as a more conventional form of colonial rule was established. The economy continued to be structured around rubber and mineral exports. In 1925 Belgium combined the Congo with its other territories of Ruanda-Urundi to create a single administrative entity known as Congo Belge et Ruanda- Urundi. It was split up into its component parts again in 1945.
Congo Independence In May 1960, a growing nationalist movement, the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC) led by Patrice Lumumba won the parliamentary elections. The party appointed Lumumba as Prime Minister. The parliament elected Joseph Kasavubu of the Alliance des Bakongo (ABAKO) party as President. The Belgian Congo achieved independence on 30 June 1960 under the name République du Congo.
On 5 September 1960, Kasavubu dismissed Lumumba from office. On 17 January 1961, Katangan forces and Belgian paratroops – supported by the United States – kidnapped and executed Patrice Lumumba. Several short-lived governments, of Joseph Ileo, Cyrille Adoula and Moise Tshombe, took over in quick succession.
Congo Crisis On 11 July 1960, with the support of Belgian business interests and over 6000 Belgian troops, the province of Katanga in the southeast declared independence as the State of Katanga under the leadership of Moise Tshombe. On 8 August 1960, the autonomous Mining State of South Kasai was proclaimed with its capital at Bakwanga. Albert Kalonji was named president of South Kasai and Joseph Ngalula was appointed head of government. The secession was ended in January 1963 with the assistance of UN forces
From Republic of the Congo to Zaire then Democratic Republic of Congo After the fail rebellion led by Pierre Mulele in 1964, Joseph Mobutu, formerly Chief of staff of Lumumba seized the power with support from the CIA on 25 November on 27 October 1971, Mobutu change the country name to Zaire and had absolute power with only one political party MPR (Movement Populaire de la Revolution) and made Zaire his own personal treasury. The country Name was changed to Democratic Republic of Congo on 17 May 1997 by Laurent Desire Kabila.
Dynamics of the conflict Shaba I Conflict was a conflict between Zaire and Angola in 1977, and was arguably a consequence of Zaire's support for the FLNA and UNITA factions in the Angolan Civil War. The conflict began on March 8, 1977 when about 2,000 members of the Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FLNC), invaded Shaba province in south western Zaire, with the support of Angola's MPLA government and the involvement of Cuban troops. MPLA President Mobutu appealed for outside support. The war ended when 1,500 Moroccan troops, and the French beat back the FNLC.Moroccan
Shaba II Conflict Shaba II was an invasion of the Shaba separatist movement FNLC (6,500 Katangese gendarmes) into the Zairian province of Shaba on 17 May The FNLC had its bases in eastern Angola and had the support of the Angolan government. Mobutu appealed for foreign military assistance from the French and Belgian. Conflict ended when the U.S. and Cuba coaxed Angola and Zaire into negotiations leading to a non-aggression pact.
The aftermath of the Rwanda Genocide As a result of the Rwandan genocide, over one million Hutu refugees fled into Eastern Zaire. Amongst them were the remnants of the former Rwandan army and the extremist Hutu militia group, the Interahamwe. While this imposed a grave burden upon the administration and people, it did not at first appear to pose a major threat to the Mobutu regime itself.
The First Congo War The First Congo War started in November 1996 when the Rebel Forces backed by Uganda and Rwanda entered the country to overthrew the Mobutu Regime. It ended in May 1997 when the Rebel leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila declared himself president and changed the name of the nation back to Democratic Republic of the Congo. The war set the foundation for the Second Congo War, which began on August 2, 1998.
Aftermath of the First Congo war Rwanda and Uganda’s alliance with Kabila was to prove extremely short-lived. Kabila sought to reduce the power of his Rwandan sponsors. By July 1998 Rwanda and Uganda had decided that Kabila too must be removed.
The Second Congo War Also known as Africa's World War and the Great War of Africa, began in August 1998 in the Democratic Republic of Congo The largest war in modern African History, it directly involved eight African nations, as well as about 25 armed groups.
Starting Point The trouble started on 14 July 1998, when Kabila dismissed his Rwandan chief of staff, James Kabarebe, and replaced him with a native Congolese, Celestin Kifwa. Apparently Kabila felt that he had solidified his Congolese political base enough to put some distance between himself and the nations who had helped him to take power.
2 August 1998 The Banyamulenge in the town of Goma erupted. Rwanda offered immediate assistance to the Banyamulenge well-armed rebel group, the Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD) backed also by Uganda. This group quickly came to dominate the resource-rich eastern provinces and based its operations in the city of Goma
The RCD quickly took control of the towns of Bukavu and Uvira in the Kivus. To help remove the occupying Rwandans, President Kabila enlisted the aid of the Hutu militants in eastern Congo and help from other African countries.
World War in Congo Kabila Support Rwanda Allies Zimbabwe : With a 200 million $ Contract involving Mugabe owned corporations. Angola : With the need to end UNITA operation in South Congo and Control over Diamond. Rwanda : The key player in the conflicts with motive to control the rich mineral part of the East. With Military Presence and Support to the Rebel Groups claiming to hunt down the genocidaires.
Kabila Support Uganda Namibia : Sam Nujoma with similar interests as Mugabe. Chad : With influence from France but also with intentions to have a steak in the Congo Resources. Libya : Motivated with financial interests and the desire to defeat the west. Uganda : Being part of the problem from the very beginning in the war with Rwanda with military presence in Congo and giving support to the rebel Groups in Eastern Congo. Motive: Interests in Resources mainly gold of which Uganda is now bigger exporter while having none in its territory.
Sudan : Playing two cards, Offering generosity to the Congo Government but also supporting 3 Ugandan Rebel Groups involved in the conflicts namely : Lord’s Resistance Army, The Uganda National Rescue Front, and Allied Democratic Forces Burundi : Lending also support to the Rwanda rebel Groups with interests in the Resources in Eastern Congo.
Shadow Supporters To Kibila To Rwanda France Belgium China: Weapon trafficking through South Africa. U.S.A: playing also the two cards for the mining control in the Congo.
Government Allies Kinshasa-aligned forces included the Congolese national army under President Laurent-Désiré Kabila and later his son Joseph Kabila, various anti foreigner Mai-Mai groups, and allied nations such as Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Sudan and Namibia. They control the west and south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The main goal is the creation of a strong state in control of its territory and borders, and thus regaining control of the natural resources
Rwandan Patriotic Front-aligned forces included the national armies of the Tutsi-dominated governments of Rwanda and Burundi, the militia groups created by the ethnic Tutsi Banyamulenge residing in the DRC and the Banyamulenge-dominated Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD) rebel forces led by Laurent Nkunda and based in Goma. Tutsi-aligned forces inside the DRC most active in North and South Kivu provinces, and have territory extending westward toward Kinshasa. Goals include protecting the national security of Rwanda and Burundi, defending Tutsis in the DRC, checking the influence of Uganda and exploiting natural resources.
Hutu-aligned forces included Rwandan Hutus responsible for the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, Burundian rebels seeking to overthrow their government, Congolese Hutus and affiliated Mai- Mai militias. The major Hutu group being the Forces Démocratiques de la Libération du Rwanda (FDLR) operating in the Kivus. Goals include expelling foreign Tutsi forces, ethnic cleansing of the Banyamulenge, overthrowing the governments of Rwanda and Burundi, and gaining control of resources.
Uganda-aligned forces included Uganda's national army and various Uganda-backed rebel groups, such as the Movement for the Liberation of Congo (MLC), in control of much of the northeast and central north of the DRC. Stated goals include protecting the borders of Uganda from invasion by Uganda rebel groups based in DRC such as the Allied Democratic Forces and People's Redemption Army, destroying rebel bases in the DRC and mineral exploitation. The United Nations had named Uganda as one country that illegally extracted natural resources from the DRC.
Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement In July 1999 the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement was signed by the six warring countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Rwanda, and Uganda) and the MLC. The Rally for Democracy in Congo of Laurent Nkunda refused to sign. Under the agreement, forces from all sides, under a Joint Military Commission, would cooperate in tracking, disarming and documenting all armed groups in the Congo, especially those forces identified with the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. Few provisions were made to actually disarm the militias.
UN Intervention By February 24, 2000, the UN authorized a force of 5,537 troops, the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), to monitor the cease-fire. However, fighting continued between rebels and government forces, and between Rwandan and Ugandan forces. All diplomatic efforts made bilaterally or through the United Nations, African Union and Southern African Development Community failed to make any headway.
As of June 2010 the UN peace-keepers in the DRC exceeded 20,000 troops from more than 30 countries in the world and was changed to United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO). Partial peace is being seen in the DRC but there have been many controversy including inability to protect civilians, participation of the UN peacekeepers in rapes and mineral exploitation.
From Laurent Kabila to Joseph Kabila 16 January 2001 Laurent Kabila was short by his bodyguard. Two days later Kabila died from his injuries. It is unknown who ordered the killing but most feel Kabila's allies were to blame as they were tired of his duplicity. By unanimous vote of the Congolese parliament, his son, Joseph Kabila, was sworn in as president to replace him. This was largely as a result of Robert Mugabe's backing and the fact that most parliamentarians had been handpicked by Joseph Kabila.
Sun City Agreement The Sun City Agreement was formalized on 19 April It was a framework for providing the Congo with a unified, multipartite government and democratic elections. “1 + 4” Formula was applied, 1 president: Joseph Kabila and 4 Vice-president: Azarias Ruberwa, Arthur Zahidi Ngoma, Abdoulaye Yerodia Ndombasi and Jean-Pierre Bemba. However, critics noted that there were no stipulations regarding the unification of the army, which weakened the effectiveness of the agreement.
Pretoria Accord On 30 July 2002 Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo signed a peace deal known as the Pretoria Accord after five days of talks in Pretoria, South Africa. The talks centered on two issues. One was the withdrawal of the estimated 20,000 Rwandan soldiers in the Congo. The other was the rounding up of the ex-Rwandan soldiers and the dismantling of the Hutu militia known as Interahamwe, which took part in Rwanda's 1994 genocide and continues to operate out of eastern Congo.
Transitional Government On 18 July 2003, the Transitional Government came into being as specified in the Global and All-Inclusive Agreement out of the warring parties. The Agreement obliges the parties to carry out a plan to reunify the country, disarm and integrate the warring parties and hold elections. There have been numerous problems, resulting in continued instability in much of the country and a delay in the scheduled national elections from June 2005 to July 2006.
MONUC MONUC was placed under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter since 1999 with mandate: Implementing the Ceasefire Agreement Monitoring and Reporting any violations through proper channels Centre of the DDRRR (Disarmament, Demobilization, Repatriation, Resettlement and Reintegration) Process. Facilitate the transition towards to organization of credible elections. Now changed to MONUSCO with Soldiers up to 23,000.
Rape as a weapon In eastern Congo, the prevalence and intensity of rape and other sexual violence is described as the worst in the world with the majority occurring in South Kivu. The actual number of women raped is thus assumed to be very higher. All armed forces in the conflict are guilty of rape, though the militia and various insurgent groups have been most culpable.
Refugees Effects within the DRC included the displacement of some 3.4 million people, as well as the impoverishment of hundreds of thousands. The majority of the displaced were from the eastern section of the country. Nearly 2 million others have been displaced in the neighbouring countries of Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.
Pygmies During the war, Pygmies were hunted down like game animals and eaten. Both sides of the war regarded them as "subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers. In neighbouring North Kivu province there has been cannibalism by a group known as Les Effaceurs (The Erasers) who wanted to clear the land of people to open it up for mineral exploitation
Legal Consequences On 19 December 2005 the United Nations International Court of Justice ruled that the DRC's sovereignty had been violated by Uganda, and that Uganda had looted billions of dollars worth of resources. The DRC government has asked for $10 billion in compensation.
Continuing Death Toll The War in the Congo has taken lives of over 5.4 Millions People and still people are continuing to die as a direct consequences on the conflict. Some through Diseases, other starvations. Continuing interests over the resources by many parties involved in the conflicts, some people are being murdered as a consequence of greediness.
What is the Future of the D.R.C? The D.R.C continue to suffer violence, rapes, human rights violations and many other atrocities despite the big size of the UN Mission and the elections held in The majority of Congolese remain poor, unemployed and witness the multiple foreign companies exploiting and exporting mineral. Despite the recognition by the UN that Congo has been and continue being invaded by foreign troops; the international community has been quiet to the situation.
The presidential elections are scheduled to take place on 28 November 2011 and the main candidates being Joseph Kabila, Tshisekedi wa Mulumba and Vital Kamerhe. The opposition is not confident for the free and fair elections and suspect Kibila to have plans for elections fraud. Peace after the elections is yet to be seen.
Will the Democratic Republic of Congo be then totally free, peaceful and governed by Congolese people themselves without the interference of the external forces? That will be the moment that the millions of Congolese people ever waited for.. Thank you