2 GenocideGenocide is a term defined as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such:Killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life, calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within a group; and forcibly transferring children of the group to another group
3 Rwanda GenocideThe Rwandan genocide was the systematic massacre of an estimated 1,000,000 Tutsi tribe members and moderate Hutus in RwandaThe killing was mostly carried out by two extremist Hutu militia groups, Interahamwe and the ImpuzamugambiThe massacre lasted approximately 100 days from April to mid-July, 1994
4 Rwandan Genocide Cont.The genocide began with Tutsi individuals and families being taken from their homes and killed in secret locations.Then it grew into mass killings in central locations like schools and churches.Eventually the slaughter spread everywhere, and people were being hacked to death in the streets.
5 Rwanda-History 3 tribes of people that inhabit Rwanda Twa, the original inhabitantsHutus, migrated in 1000 A.D.Tutsi, migrated in the 14th or 15th century
6 Rwanda-History (Continued) The Tutsis tribe of people gained a large dominance over the HutusBy the late 18th century, a single Tutsi-ruled state occupied most of the present day RwandaThe rule was headed by a Tutsi King who controlled the land and gave power over the regions to the Tutsi groupsThe Tutsis, in turn, dominated the Hutus, who had the majority of the population-The population of Rwanda was :75% Hutu20% Tutsi5% Twa
7 Rwanda Under Belgian Rule During WW1 (1916), Belgian forces occupied RwandaIn 1919 it became part of the Belgian League of NationsBefore the Belgian rule, Hutus and Tutsis lived together as neighborsWhen the Belgians took power in Rwanda, they gave political power to the TutsisTutsis were considered to have Caucasian ancestry (through lighter skin, larger skulls) and therefore were ‘superior’ to Hutus
8 Rwanda DividedOne of the major contributing factors to the split of ethnic groups was the creation of group classification on ID cards in 1933The Belgian government introduced a rigid racial concept of group identity where it had not previously existed-the ID cards now stated if the individual was Twa, Hutu or TutsiAnother important factor was the repeated decision by the Rwandan Government (after independence in 1962) to retain the group classifications on ID cards
9 Tutsi Superiority Myth The Belgians gave the majority of political control to the TutsisTutsis began to believe the myth of their superior racial status and exploited their power over the Hutu majorityCreated a resentment of the Tutsis by the Hutu people
10 RwandaIn 1990, Rwanda was invaded from Uganda by the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), made up mainly of Tutsi refugees. The invasion was unsuccessful, but the president of Rwanda agreed to share the power of the countryIn 1993, a power-sharing agreement was signed between Hutus and Tutsis
11 Rwanda 1994In April 1994, the president of Rwanda and the president of Burundi were killed in a suspicious plane crashCivil strife erupted on a massive scaleRwandan soldiers and Hutu gangs slaughtered an estimated 500,000 to 1,000,000 people, mostly Tutsis and moderate Hutus
12 Rwanda Today Rwanda is struggling to heal and rebuild It is showing signs of rapid developmentMany Hutu members have returned to RwandaThe government has promoted reconciliation and economic development
13 Images From RwandaThe follow set of slides show images from Rwanda and the Rwandan Genocide.Some of these images show how beautiful Rwanda and its people are.Other images, some graphic and disturbing, show the unspeakable violence and horror of genocide.