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Theory Deduction Hypothesis Researchdesign Findings Datagathering Operationalization Measurement Analysis Induction

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1.Problem formulation 1)Selection of the research problem & Objective 2)Specification of the research problem 2.Choice of Data collection method 3.Analysis & Presentation of Findings (Analysis) 4.Conclusions, Interpretation, & Limitations

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Problem formulation Selection of the research problem & Objective Specification of the research problem

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Problem formulation : Selection of the research problem & Objective : Selection of the research problem & Objective What do you want to study? Why is it worth studying? Does the proposed study contribute to our general understanding of crime or police responses to crime? Does it have practical significance?

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Problem formulation : Selection of the research problem & Objective : Selection of the research problem & Objective The possible beginning points for a line of your research Interests: personal experience Theories (a complex set of relationships among several variables) New programs

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Problem formulation : Selection of the research problem & Objective : Selection of the research problem & Objective One key way to search for a research problem is through ___________

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Problem formulation : Selection of the research problem & Objective : Selection of the research problem & Objective the Literature One key way to search for a research problem is through the Literature

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Problem formulation : Selection of the research problem & Objective : Selection of the research problem & Objective Literature Review What has been said about this area previously? Are the findings consistent, or do past studies disagree? Are there flaws in the body of existing research that you feel you can remedy?

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1. Problem formulation 1)Selection of the research problem & Objective 2)___________________________________ 2. Choice of Data collection method 3. Analysis & Presentation of Findings (Analysis) 4. Conclusions, Interpretation, & Limitations

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1. Problem formulation 1)Selection of the research problem & Objective 2)Specification of the research problem 2. Choice of Data collection method 3. Analysis & Presentation of Findings (Analysis) 4. Conclusions, Interpretation, & Limitations

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem 1)Conceptualization 2)Formulate hypotheses 3)Subjects for study (population & sampling) 4)Measurement

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem Conceptualization specify all the concepts you wish to study (ex. recidivism, child abuse)

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem 1)Conceptualization 2)Formulate hypotheses 3)Subjects for study (population & sampling) 4)Measurement

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What is a Hypothesis?

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A specified expectation about.. A specific statement about … ____________, The relationship between (usually two) ____________, not theoretical concepts. Derived from ___________

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A specified expectation about.. A specific statement about … VARIABLES, The relationship between (usually two) VARIABLES, not theoretical concepts. Derived from ___________

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A specified expectation about.. A specific statement about … VARIABLES, The relationship between (usually two) VARIABLES, not theoretical concepts. Derived from THEORY (Literature Review)

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem 1)Conceptualization 2)Formulate hypotheses 3)Subjects for study (population & sampling) 4)Measurement

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem Subjects for study (population & sampling) Population: Who or what will you study?

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem Subjects for study (population & sampling) Population: Who or what will you study? Sampling: how to select a sample?

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem Subjects for study (population & sampling) Population: Who or what will you study? Sampling: how to select a sample? they are not harmed by the research If there is any possibility that your research will have an impact on those you study, how will you ensure that they are not harmed by the research?

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem 1)Conceptualization 2)Formulate hypotheses 3)Subjects for study (population & sampling) 4)______________

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem 1)Conceptualization 2)Formulate hypotheses 3)Subjects for study (population & sampling) 4)Measurement

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem Measurement What are the key variables?

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem Measurement What are the key variables? How will you define them? How will you measure them? _______?________

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem Measurement What are the key variables? How will you define them? How will you measure them? Operationalization

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Problem formulation : Specification of the research problem : Specification of the research problem Measurement What are the key variables? How will you define them? How will you measure them? Operationalization Do your definitions & measurement methods duplicate or differ from those of previous research on this topic?

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develop You may develop the scales to measure the variables “ parental control ” and “ delinquency. ” find the existing scales through literature review But, easiest way is to find the existing scales through literature review.

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1.Problem formulation 1)Selection of the research problem & Objective 2)Specification of the research problem 2.Choice of Data collection method 3.Analysis & Presentation of Findings (Analysis) 4.Conclusions, Interpretation, & Limitations

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Choice of Data collection method – how will you collect the information/observation? 1.Experiments 2.Social surveys 3.Participant observation 4.Case studies/life histories 5.Unobtrusive measure

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1. Problem formulation 1)Selection of the research problem & Objective 2)Specification of the research problem 2. Choice of Data collection method 3. Analysis & Presentation of Findings (Analysis) 4. Conclusions, Interpretation, & Limitations

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1.Problem formulation 1)Selection of the research problem & Objective 2)Specification of the research problem 2.Choice of Data collection method 3.Analysis & Presentation of Findings (Analysis) 4.Conclusions, Interpretation, & Limitations Formal Scientific Research Paper

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They will want to know 1.Why you did the research 2.How you did it 3.What you found out 4.Whether your findings were significant & useful

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1. Introduction 2. Literature review 3. Methods 4. Results (findings) 5. Discussion of results, conclusions, & recommendations for future study (limitation of your study) 6. references

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Explain briefly the purpose of your research

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What problem did you address?

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Explain briefly the purpose of your research What problem did you address? Why did you address it?

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Explain briefly the purpose of your research What problem did you address? Why did you address it? Provide enough background to enable the reader to understand the research problem being investigated

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Summarizing previous research addressing same or a related problem

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Are there findings consistent, or do past studies disagree?

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Summarizing previous research addressing same or a related problem Are there findings consistent, or do past studies disagree? Are there flaws in the body of existing research?

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Summarizing previous research addressing same or a related problem Are there findings consistent, or do past studies disagree? Are there flaws in the body of existing research? present a hypothesis

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A “ cookbook ” section

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How you did your investigation

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A “ cookbook ” section How you did your investigation Sampling

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A “ cookbook ” section How you did your investigation Sampling Data-Gathering Strategies

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How you did your investigation 5 Data-Gathering Strategies Experiments Social surveys Participant observation Case studies/life histories Unobtrusive measures

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A “ cookbook ” section How you did your investigation Sampling Data-Gathering Strategies What are the key variables?

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A “ cookbook ” section How you did your investigation Sampling Data-Gathering Strategies What are the key variables? How to measure your variables (DV, IV)

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A “ cookbook ” section How you did your investigation Sampling Data-Gathering Strategies What are the key variables? How to measure your variables (DV, IV) Do your definitions & measurement methods duplicate (if yes, from where) or differ from those of previous research on this topic?

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1. Introduction 2. Literature review 3. Methods 4. Results (findings) (possible) conclusions, & recommendations for future study (limitation) 5. Discussion of results, (possible) conclusions, & recommendations for future study (limitation) 6. references

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Main part of the report

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The key to success in this section – to link your findings to the research questions raised in the introduction

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Did it confirm or disconfirm your hypothesis?

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Did you discover information that you hadn ’ t anticipated?

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Did it confirm or disconfirm your hypothesis? Did you discover information that you hadn ’ t anticipated? Was your research design appropriate?

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Did it confirm or disconfirm your hypothesis? Did you discover information that you hadn ’ t anticipated? Was your research design appropriate? Did your research raise new questions?

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Did it confirm or disconfirm your hypothesis? Did you discover information that you hadn ’ t anticipated? Was your research design appropriate? Did your research raise new questions? Are there implications from your results that need to be explored?

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