Types of research articles Theoretical Empirical
Empirical Research Is the process whereby questions are raised and answers are explored by carefully gathering, analyzing, and interpreting data
Examples of Research Questions What factors cause stress in college students? What is the relationship between weight gain and self esteem? Why do college students feel stressed during tests? Why do some people gain weight faster than others?
Components of a primary research article 1.Title 2.Abstract 3.Introduction 4.Methodology 5.Results 6.Discussion/ Conclusion 7.References
Title A title needs to be concise & shows focus of the study Example: Effects of Day Care on the Development of Cognitive Abilities in 8 year- olds: A Longitudinal Study
Abstract A well written abstract should include: a. Purpose b. Participants c. Method d. Main results e. Interpretation of results/conclusions
Example “Abstract: Objective: Experiments have found that pressure to be thin from the media promotes body dissatisfaction and negative affect, but the effects of social pressure to be thin have not been examined experimentally. Thus, this study tested whether social pressure to be thin fosters body dissatisfaction and negative affect. Method: Young women (N=120) were randomly assigned to a condition wherein an ultra-thin confederate complained about how fat she felt and voiced intentions to lose weight or a control condition wherein she discussed a neutral topic. Results: Exposure to social pressure to be thin resulted in increased body dissatisfaction but not negative affect. The effects were not moderated by initial thin ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, or social support. Discussion: Results support the assertion that peer pressure to be thin promotes body dissatisfaction but suggest that this factor may not contribute to negative affect.
Introduction The topic/Background information Importance of the topic Any theory Research question/ hypothesis Definition of any special terminology
Examples of Hypotheses Level of income influences the quality of child care. The more college students are anxious, the worse they will perform on exams
Definitions of variables Anxiety Theoretical definition: “an uncomfortable feeling of nervousness or worry about something”. Operational definition: the score on a test measuring anxiety.
Methodology The typical subsections in the methodology: Sample Research design Data-collection procedures
Sample A well written sample section gives: Characteristics of participants/objects Rationale of selection
Types of Samples Information-rich: used to do an in-depth analysis of some phenomenon Representative sample: used to generalize the findings to a larger group of people (target population)
Sampling procedures A C B D C A B Target Population Sample GENERALIZE SELECTION Adapted from: Perry, p.60 The sample is not fully representative
Design Research Design Types of design 1.Basic 2.Qualitative 3.Exploratory Applied Quantitative Confirmatory
BASIC APPLIED Basic research is highly theoretical Applied research is very practical
QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE Information-rich samples Verbal data Data are analyzed for patterns, comparisons and contrasts Representative samples Numerical data Statistics are used to generalize to populations
EXPLORATORY CONFIRMATORY A study is exploring some phenomenon before the development of any hypothesis A study is trying to confirm a hypothesis
Data – Collection Procedures Instruments or observational procedures. surveys tests personal interviews observations
Data collection Triangulation of data collection means the researcher(s) used many procedures to collect their data
Data analysis Reliability the consistency of the results. Validity the accuracy of instrument or procedure
Results The results of the data analysis are given in the form of: Numerical data statistics Verbal data patterns
P-value The p-value represents the probability of error that is involved in accepting our observed result as "representative of the population."
P- value The p-value of.05 is acceptable. Results at p <.01 level statistically significant Results at p <.005 or p <.001 levels highly significant.
Discussion Discussion/Conclusion The results are related to: Research question(s) and/or any hypothesis Previous research
Discussion Practical implications Strengths and limitations Suggestions for further research