1 Writing the Research Proposal Researchers communicate: Plans, Methods, Thoughts, and Objectives for others to read discuss, and act upon.
2 RESEARCHER: PLANNER Presents a written proposal for a research project: The problem and subproblems are clearly stated. Hypotheses or questions are articulated, Terms are defined Delimitations spelled out
3 Specify Every anticipated detail of Acquiring, Organizing, Analyzing. And Interpreting the data Nothing is left unspecified. Nothing is left overlooked. Unresolved matters may seriously affect its approval
4 CHARACTERISTICS A straightforward document Not a literary production Clearly organized
5 THE MAJOR SECTIONS OF A RESEARCH PROPOSAL Problems to be investigated
6 Four Topics addressed 1) the purpose, including the researcher’s assumptions; 2)the justification for the study; 3) hypotheses, including variables to be investigated; and 4) the definition of the terms
7 BACKGROUND & REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A summary of previous work related to the hypothesis or focus of the study. Familiar with the major trends in previous research, opinion on the topic and understand their relevance to the study being planned. Include theoretical conceptions, related studies, and studies that provide additional perspectives on the research questions
8 PROCEDURES 1) Methodology, or research design 2) Sample, 3) Instrumentation, 4) Procedural detail, 5) Internal validity, and 6) Data analysis
9 Methodology The particular method to be used in the study and its application to the study should be identified (c.16)
10 SAMPLE Indicate in detail how she will obtain the subjects - the sample - to be used in the study. If it possible, a random sample should be used.
11 Convenience Sample If a convenience sample must be used, relevant demographics (gender, ethnicity, occupation, IQ, and so on) of the sample should be describe.
12 Sample: Keys questions 1) Have I described my sampling plan? 2) Have I described the relevant characteristics of my sample in detail? 3) Have Identified the population to which the results of the study may legitimately be generalized?
13 Instrumentation Whenever possible, existing instruments should be used Must be sufficiently reliable and valid results can be obtained for the researcher’s purpose. In developing instrument to be used, describe how validity and reliability will (presumably) be enhanced
14 Procedural Details What will be done, as well as when, where, and how - should be described in detail Make clear how information collected to be used to answer the original question or to test the original hypothesis
15 INTERNAL VALIDITY Examine the proposed methodology for the presence of any feasible alternative explanations for the results should the study’s hypothesis be supported Or (should non-hypothesized relationships be identified) Review threats to internal validity (c.9).
16 DATA ANALYSIS Indicate how the data to be collected will be organized (c.7), and analyzed (c.s 10,11, and 12)
17 General Comments All section of a proposal must be consistent. Terms used in a study must be used throughout as originally defined. The hypotheses must be consistent with, or appropriate for the research question, the hypotheses, and the procedures for data collection. The method of obtaining the sample must appropriate for the instrument that will be used and for the means of dealing with the alternative explanations for the results, and so forth…