APA Referencing… 1. Cullin and Agnew 2. Agnews and Cullen 3. Agnew and Cullen 4. Cullen and Agnew 5. Collins and Agnew 6. Gullen and Agnews 7. Agnow and Collin
Reference List Journal Article: Harris, D. & Knight, R. (2006). “A Typological approach to specific pathways for rapists and child molesters”, Journal of Sex Research, 56(4), 78-90.
Reference List Book: Gelles, R. & Wolfner, K. (1979). Sexuality Across the Life Course, London: Sage Publications.
Reference List Chapter in a book: Beccaria, C. (2006). ‘Of crimes and punishments’. In Cullen, F. and Agnew, R. (Eds.). Criminological Theory: Past to Present, Essential Readings, (3 rd Edn). New York: Roxbury Press, pp 438 – 562.
Reference List Author cited in a book you read Only the book you read goes in the reference list In text e.g. = (Lyman in Moss, 2004) Reference List e.g. = Moss (2004) etc.
APA Referencing… Do NOT quote lecture notes Find the information in a book/article Do NOT quote a source unless you’ve read it yourself Do quote EVERY time you are using information that you didn’t make up Do follow APA style referencing conventions…
APA Referencing… The date ALWAYS follows the author’s name. The page number ALWAYS follows the quotation.
APA Referencing… This is how you cite information that “comes verbatim from another source” (Cullen & Agnew, 2003, p. 41). This is how you cite information that you paraphrase and put into your own words (Cullen & Agnew, 2003).
APA Referencing… This is how you cite information that came from a secondary source, when you did not read the original (Beccaria in Cullen & Agnew, 2003). This is how you cite their work “if you use their specific words” (Beccaria in Cullen & Agnew, 2003, p. 56).
APA Referencing… Cullen and Agnew (2003) argue that it is acceptable to start a sentence with the authors’ names, but the date must be included. Cullen and Agnew (2003) have also proposed that using “their words verbatim is acceptable, but the page number must be included” (p. 77).
APA Referencing… Other theorists have proposed that “if you use specific words” (Beccaria in Cullen & Agnew, 2003, p. 78) you must include the citation in the middle of the sentence.
APA Referencing… If a source has three or more authors you must use all names in the first citation (Knight, Prentky & Burton, 1998). Knight et al. (1998) explain that this is the appropriate way to cite them later in the paper. This is the appropriate thing to do at the end of the sentence (Knight et al., 1998).
And finally… …a little PR goes a long way PROOFREAD PRIOR to PRESSING PRINT
Paper don’ts (do nots…) Use contractions (won’t don’t can’t) Use first person Include the authors’ first names in text Include the article titles in text Cite websites, lecture notes or television shows
Paper do’s Third person, past tense At least 3 academically acceptable references beyond the textbook Five pages, double spaced Times New Roman 12” font APA referencing style Five pages (not including title page and references)
Paper outline Introduction Crime Description (rape, burglary) or Incident Description (Bundy, ENRON) Outline of Theory Analysis of crime through your theory Advantages/disadvantages Policy Recommendations Conclusion
Introduction Briefly outline what the paper will be about (introduce crime and theory) Set up the objective of the paper Outline what the rest of the paper will contain
Crime/Incident Description Briefly review the existing research on the crime (incidence, prevalence, trends, victim/offender characteristics) OR Briefly review what is known on the incident (what happened, when, how, why etc). THIS IS NOT A PAPER ON BUNDY (it’s a theory paper that uses Bundy’s crime as an example of the theory’s ability to explain crime)
Outline of Theory Briefly outline theory Who wrote it? Why? How did it emerge? Main assumptions/propositions Advantages and disadvantages Has it been tested empirically? Evidence?
Analysis of Crime Through Theory This is where you marry the two together Explain the crime or the incident through the theory you have chosen using academically acceptable, peer reviewed journal articles or books Identify any gaps (it explains why she did this, but not why she did that…)
Advantages & Disadvantages Goodness of fit? How well does the theory fit the crime? Why is it a good theory to choose? Are there any gaps? You may skip this section if you’ve addressed these issues earlier
Policy Recommendations Given that you have explained this crime or this incident with this theory, what should we do about it? What should Bundy’s sentence have been? How can we better prevent employee theft? How can we better treat sex offenders?
Conclusion Bring all of the evidence together in one paragraph at the end Review what you’ve found and remind the reader why it’s wonderful
Pet Hates… Within, without, throughout, therefore, furthermore are all one word (each) You can’t prove or disprove anything in social sciences – you can support an argument with evidence, that’s all May/might Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)