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London School of Science & Technology Harvard Referencing Guide.

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Presentation on theme: "London School of Science & Technology Harvard Referencing Guide."— Presentation transcript:

1 London School of Science & Technology Harvard Referencing Guide

2 The Harvard referencing system There are many different styles of referencing Harvard system is the most commonly used Advantages Easily recognised by readers Doesn’t ‘intrude’ upon the page, gives you a bit of information in the text with the full details at the back in the reference list

3 What is referencing? It is an acknowledgement that you have used the ideas and written materials belonging to other authors It is a method used to demonstrate to your lecturer that you have conducted appropriate research All referencing styles have to parts – the citing and the reference list

4 Why is it important to reference? To demonstrate to your lecturer that you have conducted thorough research To provide your lecturer with the details of the resources you have used for your assignment To avoid facing academic penalties for plagiarism

5 What are the penalties for plagiarising? 0 marks for your assignment A fee of £30 is charged for assignment resubmission The highest possible mark for resubmitted work is a pass

6 Avoiding plagiarism By appropriately acknowledging in your assignment text when you have referred to materials or ideas taken from other authors By including a reference list at the back of your assignment with all the sources you have referred to in your work

7 2 parts of referencing Citation This is when you mention the author and year of publication in your assignment text Reference list This is a separate document that goes at the back your assignment that lists all the references you used in your assignment

8 Citation: Part 1 of referencing The first part of referencing is when you refer to (cite) someone else’s work in your assignment. Your citation(s) should include: 1.The author or editor’s surname 2.The year of publication

9 When you are citing you might be Paraphrasing Restating information taken from someone else’s work in your own words. Examples of paraphrasing Market research is a specialised management tool used for public relations, advertising development, campaign planning and computer systems development (Birn, 2004). Role theory applied to employee behaviour was first elaborated by Belbin (1996) who suggests that teams work most effectively when they contain members with a range of preferred roles.

10 When you are citing you might be Quoting Taking the exact words from a source and enclosing it in quotation marks and mentioning the page number the quote comes from Examples of quoting The principle of effective stress is ‘imperfectly known and understood by many practising engineers’ (Simons, 2008, p.4). Stone (2008) states that ‘performance improvement comes about by building on strengths and overcoming weaknesses’ (p.303).

11 Citation – The author If there is 1 author Example: A recent study investigated the effectiveness of using Google Scholar to find business research (Henderson, 2005). If there are 2 authors Example: A recent study investigated the effectiveness of using Google Scholar to find business research (Henderson & Smith, 2005). If there are 3 or more authors Example: A recent study investigated the effectiveness of using Google Scholar to find business research (Henderson et al, 2005).

12 Citation – The author Citing works by the same author written in the same year Example: Competitive markets and demanding customers require updated and refreshed products and services (Slack, 2008a; Slack, 2008b). Citing a chapter of a book Some books may contain chapters written by different authors. When citing work from such a book, the author who wrote the chapter should be cited, not the editor of the book.

13 Citation – The author Works with no obvious author If you can’t find an authors name you can use a corporate author name This is often the case for websites, reports and some textbooks If you can’t find either a named or corporate author you can use Anon as the author’s name Example: Takeovers often benefit the shareholders of an acquired company more than the acquirer (BPP Learning Media, 2010).

14 Citing secondary references If you come across information cited in an academic work and you cannot find the original source you can use it as a secondary reference. Example: According to Ulrich (1997) as cited by Slack et al (2010), there are four specific HR roles that are relevant to operations management including strategic partnership, administrative expertise, change management and championing employees.

15 Part 2 of Referencing: Writing a reference list The list should be in alphabetical order by author/editor Books, websites etc are written in a particular format that must be followed Your reference list contains all the items you have cited or directly quoted from

16 Formatting the Reference List Printed Book Author/Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) (year of publication) Title (this should be in italics) Series title and number (if part of a series) Edition (if not the first edition) Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) Publisher Example: BPP Learning Media (2010) Marketing and promotion. United Kingdom: BPP Learning Media.

17 Formatting the reference list Online/Electronic Book Author/Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) (year of publication) Title (this should be in italics) Edition (if not the first edition) [Online] Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) Publisher Available at: URL [date of access] Example: Emerson, R. (2009) Business Law, 5 th edition. [Online] New York: Barons Education. Available at: [Accessed 18 th June, 2010].

18 Formatting the Reference List Chapter in an Edited Book Author of the chapter (year of publication) Title of chapter followed by In: Editor (always put (ed.) after the name) Title (this should be in italics) Series title and number (if part of a series) Edition (if not the first edition) Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) Publisher Page numbers (use ‘p.’ before a single page number and ‘pp.’ where there are multiple pages) Example: Newell, S. (2005) Recruitment and selection. In: Bach, S. (ed.) Managing Human Resources, 4 th edition. Massachusetts, USA: Blackwell publishing, pp

19 Formatting the Reference List Journal Article: Print Author (year of publication) Title of journal article Title of journal (this should be in italics) Volume number Issue number Page numbers of the article (do not use ‘p’. before the page numbers) Example Tan-Solano, M. & Kleiner, B. H. (2001) Effects of telecommuting on organisational behaviour. Management Research News, 24 (3),

20 Formatting the Reference List Journal Article: Online/Electronic Author (year of publication) Title of journal article Title of journal (this should be in italics) [Online] volume number Issue number Page numbers of the article (do not use ‘p’. before the page numbers) Available at: URL [date of access] Example: Tan-Solano, M. & Kleiner, B. H. (2001) Effects of telecommuting on organisational behaviour. Management Research News, 24 (3), Available at: 9174&volume.html [Accessed 17 th November, 2011].

21 Formatting the Reference List Web page/Website Author/Editor (use the corporate author if no individual author or editor is named) (year of publication) (if available; if there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d.) Title (this should be in italics) [Online] Available from: URL [date of access] Example: Larson, A. (2010) Contract law – an introduction [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 23rd November, 2011].

22 Formatting the Reference List Lecture Name of lecturer (year of lecture) Title of lecture (this should be in italics) [Lecture] Title of unit/degree course (if appropriate) Name of institution or location date of lecture (day month) Example: Owen, J. (2010) Defences in tort [Lecture]. London School of Science & Technology, 12 th September.

23 Example of a reference list References Baron, D. P. (2008) Business and the organisation. Chester: Pearson. BPP Learning Media (2010) Marketing and promotion. United Kingdom: BPP Learning Media Emerson, R. (2009) Business Law, 5 th edition. [Online] New York: Barons Education. Available from: [Accessed 18 th June 2010]. Encyclopaedia Britannica, (2003). Britannica [CD-ROM] Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica. Innovation and growth (2011) Business daily, BBC Radio. 24th November. Jones, P. (2010) Business regeneration report. RM Business solutions. Report number: 63. Larson, A. (2010) Contract law – an introduction [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 23rd November, 2011]. Masters, B. & Goff, S. (2011) Bankers accused of dishonest lobbying. The Financial Times, 23 November, p.1.


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