Presentation on theme: "A quick guide to APA formatting William A. Sodeman, Ph.D. Hawaii Pacific University."— Presentation transcript:
A quick guide to APA formatting William A. Sodeman, Ph.D. Hawaii Pacific University
Use only one font and size! Times Roman, Arial or Courier –Fonts affect page length! 12 point size No bold or underlines –Be careful with web addresses and URLs! Italics are acceptable –Required in Level 3, 4 and 5 headers
Margins and spacing 5.03 and 5.04 One inch margins on all sides Double spacing
APA paper structure PageSection 1Title page 2Abstract page 3Body of the paper Reference list Appendixes, author notes, footnotes, figures and tables
Page 1: The title page 5.15 Page header with page number 1 (5.06) –Include 2-3 descriptive words from title Running head with an abbreviated title –50 characters maximum Author's title and affiliation Course and date may be included
Page 2: The abstract page 1.07 and 5.16 The last page you should write! –Provides a summary of the paper's content Not the paper's structure, headers or organization –One paragraph, 120 words maximum The first page many readers look for –Used in bibliographic databases for indexing your paper
Page 3 and beyond: The body of the paper Contains the actual content of the paper Indent each paragraph (5.08) –½ inch or 5-7 spaces
Headings Use at least 2 levels of headings –Provide structure for your content –Clearly organized and well chosen –See 3.32 and 5.10 for examples 1, 3 1, 3, 4 1, 2, 3, 4 5, 1, 2, 3, 4
Outline your headings In a separate document, outline your APA headings Print and use that document as a guide while you write the paper
Avoid using block quotes! 3.34 and 3.35 Indirect quotes are better –Paraphrase carefully in your own words Use direct quotes only when these words really help your paper Size matters! Shorter quotes are better
Citations 3.94 – 3.103, 4.16 Must appear with every outside source and quotation in the paper Must be accurate and properly formatted
Find reliable and reputable sources Look for high quality news and journal articles Find and cite books and other textbooks when relevant Use the library databases (EBSCO) Don't depend on the Internet and search engines!
Find a variety of references Avoid excessive bias in your research Don’t rely on the same articles or authors for most of your citations Directories and reference works are a good place to start, but avoid using them in your paper
Avoid marketing material! These sources are usually biased –“White papers” –Advertising sections and supplements –Press releases –Sales and catalog content –Corporate web sites
Find reliable and reputable sources Your course textbooks do not count as a primary source! You may use but not cite general references –Dictionaries –Glossaries –Encyclopedias
Secondary sources 4.16: 17 and 22 A source that is mentioned in another source of material –An author cites or quotes an article or book If you need to cite this secondary source, it is always best to find and cite the original source If you can't find the original source, then use the APA formats for secondary sources
Reference list 4.16, 5.18 All sources and citations used in the body of the paper must appear in the reference list! –Hanging indent –Double-spaced –Alphabetical order by first author’s last name If there is no author, use the article or book title
Academic honesty Students in this course can't help each other on individual papers! –All paper content must be your own work –Find your own sources and references Does the instructor keep an updated databases of references? Can he check references across several student papers?
You can get some help, but you need to do the actual corrections Style, grammar and spelling Word processors and other programs APA formatting
P r oofread your work! Have someone else read your work! –The instructor should never be the first person to read your paper Use but don't trust spell and grammar check –Look for synonyms and homonyms –Check people, place and company names –Be careful with technical terms
RTFM Read the fine manuals! The APA Publication Manual is the best source for formatting and style information Learn to use your word processor! –Use the Help function or check the Web –Don't reinvent the wheel! –Find the function you need
Plan and manage your time Start early! Plan ahead! Don’t wait for the last minute! Back up your files! Allow hours for TurnItIn.com to return a draft originality analysis Ask plenty of questions!