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Citations and References in APA Carol M. Allen, RN, MSN May 2007.

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2 Citations and References in APA Carol M. Allen, RN, MSN May 2007

3 Documenting Sources in APA Hacker (pp. 426-436)  In Text: Signal Phrase Last name of author (or authors) Date in parenthesis Page number (at end)  Reference List Corresponds to author and date of the citation and provides publishing information (Listed at the end of your paper)

4 In-Text Basics  Signal phrase uses past tense  Includes at least the author’s name and the date  For direct quotes, a page number (or paragraph number) must be included  Do not include the month of publication, even if the source lists it  Quotation Signal phrase, author, (date), “quoted portion without punctuation mark at the end” (p. #). If the signal phrase does not include the author’s name with date, include at the end: “quoted portion without punctuation” (author, date, p. #)

5 In-Text Basics (cont)  Paraphrase or summary Signal phrase, author, date in parenthesis, passage. Page or paragraph number not needed, but could be included if helpful – at the end (p. #).  Two authors: In-text with signal phrase: use only the last names of the authors separated with the word and In citation: include the last names of both authors, separated by &, comma and date in parentheses. (Author & Author, date, p. #).

6 In-Text Basics (cont)  More than 2 authors, less than 6 authors With signal phrase, include the last names of each of the authors, with the word and between the last and next to last names. (With first use) With end citation, include the last names of each of the authors with & between the last and next to last names  Subsequent uses of that source With signal phrase, use the Last name of the first author, then place et al.

7 Special Considerations: Authors  Unknown author Mention the works’ title in the signal phrase or the first few words in the parentheses If “Anonymous” treat as if that is the name  (Anonymous, date)  Organization as author Name the organization in the signal phrase or citation If the organization has a familiar abbreviation, include that in the first notation, then use the abbreviation the next time: American Nurses Association [ANA]

8 Special Considerations  Two or more works in a citation List according to appearance in the reference list, separate each entry by a semicolon  Same last name Us the initial of the author’s first name before the last name (in text)  Two or more sources by the same author and year Identify each with a letter after the date (Author, datea); (Author, dateb) Use the letters in citations, signal phrases, and in reference list

9 Electronic Documents Hacker (pp. 430-431)  In general, follow the basic format  See rules for unknown author, Anonymous, and organizations as authors  When the date is unknown, use (n.d.)  Page numbers Many lack page numbers Include information that will bring the reader closest to the information If numbered paragraphs: inlcude para # Not numbered, include heading and paragraph: (heading, para #)

10 Other situations  Personal communication Interviews, phone, email, etc Write the name of the person, comma, then personal communication, and the complete date Month, day, year They are not included in the reference list  Indirect source (quoted from another source in the source you have) Name the original source in your signal phrase Include a parenthetical citation with “as cited in” then name the secondary source Include the secondary source in your reference list

11 Reference List  The last pages of your paper  References As the header, centered on the page  Keep double- spaced  Overhang the first line  Put the list in alphabetical order  Invert all the author’s names (last name, initial)  If more than one author, use & between the last and next to last

12 Reference List (cont)  Capitalize only the first word of the article and books (and subtitles and proper nouns)  Do not use quotes on articles  Use Italics for the names of the book and of journals  Abbreviate page and pages as p. and pp.  Include retrieval information of electronic sources—Retrieved on from

13 Reference List  Pay close attention to punctuation, capitals, italics, dates, URL  Some web documents are not clearly marked with authors, dates, name of site  You may need to look for these, if not found cite as discussed

14 Reference (for this lecture)  Hacker, D. (2007). A writer’s reference (6 th Edition). Boston:Bedford/St. Martin’s

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