Philip II Cardinal Grenvelle Duke of Alba Don John Francis,Duke of Alencon
Philip II’s determination to make all of Europe Catholic again, especially areas under his direct control (religious) Philip II’s desire to hold on to the Netherlands which were the richest area under Philip’s control and the richest area in all of Europe (economic) Philip II’s desire to keep this wealthy area under his direct control (political) Protestant attacks on Catholic churchs in the Netherlands (religious) Protestant resistance to outside control (political/economic)
Advising Margaret of Parma, Cardinal Grenvelle planned to establish a centralized government controlled by Madrid. This was strongly opposed by two council members, Count of Egmont and William of Orange. “Silent”
William of Orange – a politique who place political autonomy and well-being above religious uniformity. William was, at different time, Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist. In 1561, when Grenvelle attempted to reorganize the Church in the Netherlands, Egmont and Orange organized the Dutch nobles and suceeded in having Grenvelle removed. However, the unrest was not over as the nobles proved inefficient in running the country.
Compromise – in reaction to Philip II’s insistence that the decrees of the Council of Trent be enforced throughout the Netherlands, Protestant opposition arose. The opposition members agreed to the Compromise, a solemn pledge to resist the decrees of Trent. When the government spurned the protestors as “Beggars”, the Calvinists rioted. French Huguenots and German Lutherans sent aid to the protestors – full scale rebellion appeared imminent.
Council of Troubles/Blood – Duke of Alba was sent to Netherlands to deal with the rebellion. He established the Council of Troubles – known as Council of Blood by the rebels to dealt with suspected heretics. Thousands were executed. Tenth Penny – a sales tax enacted to force Netherlands to pay for revolt. Combined with persecution and new tax thousands flee the Netherlands
William of Orange, living in exile in Germany emerged as the leader of the movement for Dutch independence. Sea Beggars – a group of international anti-Spanish exiles were enlisted by William of Orange. They captured Brill and other seaports in Zeeland and Holland helping to inspire rebellion and resistance.
To resist Spanish attacks, the Dutch opened the dikes and flooded their country to repulse the hated Spanish.
Spanish Fury – greatest atrocity of the war came in 1576 when Spanish mercenaries ran amok in Antwerp leaving 7,000 people dead
Pacification of Ghent – Declared internal regional sovereignty in matters of religion, a key clause that permitted political cooperation among the signatories, who were not agreed over religion – Netherlandish version of cuius region, eius religio
Don John – now became commander of land forces in Netherlands; met with defeat and signed Perpetual Edict in February 1577. This edict provided for the removal of all Spanish troops from the Netherlands within 20 days. Effectively gave William of Orange control of the Netherlands. Silence! I’m in charge!
Union of Arras – Don John, along with Alessandro Farnese of Parma, revived Spanish power in southern Catholic provinces. In January 1579, the southern provinces formed the Union of Arras and within 5 months made peace with Spain. Union of Utrecht – union of northern Protestant provinces Philip II declared William of Orange an outlaw and placed a bounty on his head. This enraged the northern provinces and resistance strengthened.
Apology – speech by William of Orange, December 1580; whenin, he denounce Philip as a heathen tyrant whom the people of the Netherlands need not longer obey Union of Utrecht – July 22, 1581 – formally declared Philip was no longer their ruler – offered the job to Catherine de Medici’s youngest son – a loser who failed Spain continue to try and establish power over the Netherlands but Spanish are spread to thin to be successful Elizabeth’s little Frog
Twelve Years’ Truce (1609) – gave the northern provinces virtual independence
Peace of Westphalia (1648) – United Provinces of Netherlands officially recognized as independent.
Northern provinces were victorious and remained Protestant Philip lost his most wealthy provinces Spain was loser in wars of religion Spain’s power in Europe was diminished as France emerged as most powerful country on continent United Provinces of Netherlands practiced religious toleration and were the birthplace of Commercial Revolution