Presentation on theme: "AP World History Chapter 25 The Consolidation of Latin America 1830-1920."— Presentation transcript:
AP World History Chapter 25 The Consolidation of Latin America
4 External events impacts political changes 1.America Revolution 2.French Revolution 3.Extension of French Rev. to Haiti 4.France invasion of Portugal and Spain Political Ideas CentralistFederalistPositivism
The Colonial Class System Peninsulares – Born in Spain or Portugal Creoles – Europeans - Born in the Americans Mestizos – Mixed – Native Indians - European Mulattos – Mixed – Blacks - European Native Indians Black Slaves The great differences in status based on color – created outcaste and rebellions
Causes of Political Change American Revolution Model French Revolution Ideology Too radical Toussaint L'Overture 1791 slave revolt Republic of Haiti, 1804 French invasion of Spain
Napoleon sent a French army to crush the rebellion in Haiti Toussaint tricked into surrendering in 1802; he was shipped to France where he died a year later in a dungeon French troops weakened by yellow fever; eventually fell to the rebel forces
Latin American States After the Revolutions *Caudillos – Leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government*Caudillos – Leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government
Spanish-American Independence Struggles Mexico Miguel de Hidalgo 1810 Rebellion, alliance with Indians and mestizos Augustín de Iturbide Ended the Mexican War of Independence 1824, collapse of new state
Miguel de Hidalgo – 1810 – a parish priest roused the Indians and Mestizos – revolted – after early victories he lost Creole support and was executed September 16, the first day of the uprising, is Mexico’s Independence Day Conservative Creoles under Augustin Iturbide (ee-toor- BEE-day) won independence, first emperor in Emperor Agustin Mexico became a republic in 1824 – “el Grito de Dolores” – The cry of Dolores – Mexicans to fight for independence and Liberty.
Mexican War of Independence Mexican War of Independence ( ), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, The Mexican War of Independence movement was led by Mexican-born Spanish, and mestizos who sought independence from Spain. It started as an idealistic peasants' rebellion against their colonial masters, but finally ended as an unlikely alliance between liberales (liberals) and conservadores (conservatives).MexicoSpainliberalsconservatives Agustín de Iturbide, A favorite of the Mexican church hierarchy, Iturbide was the personification of conservative Creole values, devoutly religious, and committed to the defense of property rights and social privileges became the first emperor.Agustín de Iturbide
Cause of the Mexican Revolution 1910? Porfirio Diaz (dictatorial reign)– ruled Mexico form – conservative, centralize government with support of army, large landowners, Catholic Church Real wages of workers declined Liberal landowner – Francesco Madero led a series of strikes throughout the country. He forced Diaz from power and open the door to a wider revolution
Maximilian von Habsburg – Austrian archduke proclaimed emperor of Mexico as a result of French intervention in 1862 ; after the French withdrawal he was executed in 1867 by Juarez’s firing squad Benito Juarez-Indian Lawyer who led a liberal revolution against Santa Anna; defeated by the French, who made Maximilian emperor; returned to power from Porfirio Diaz –One of Juarez’s generals ; elected president of Mexico in 1876 and dominated polities for 35 years
1825, all Spanish colonies independent Simon Bolívar Creole, Visionary, Revolutionary, & Liberator Independence movement, , victory Grand Columbia Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador 1830, split José de San Martín Liberator of Spanish South America. Buenos Aires, Peru, Chili, Argentina
Bolivar’s Accomplishment Gran Colombia – Existed as an independent state until 1830 when Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador became separate independent nations
No Unity! Failure of Bolivar’s dream for a united South America: 1.Many newly independent countries struggle with civil wars. By 1830s, geographic factors (mts., the Amazon, etc.) plus cultural differences defeated attempts at unification. 1.Gran Columbia. 2.United Provinces of Central America.
Bolivar’s Failure After uniting Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador into Gran Columbia, he left to help free the rest of Latin America. He died a year later, with his goal of uniting all of South America unfulfilled!
Brazilian Independence 1807, French invasion of Portugal Royal family, elite, to Brazil Rio de Janeiro, capital King João VI (John VI) of Portugal In Brazil until 1820 Pedro left in Brazil as regent 1822, Pedro declares Brazil independent Pedro I
Enlightenment ideals Role of Catholic church? Equality Slavery Indians, mestizos Franchisement
Latin American Economies and World Markets, Britain, U.S. support independence in exchange for economic power Dependency on foreign consumers Mid-Century Stagnation After 1850 European market creates demand Church, conservatives slow change Landowners, peasants ally in opposition The Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention.
Mexico: Instability and Foreign Intervention 1824, Mexican Constitution Conservative centralists v. liberal federalists Reforms attempted, 1830s Opposed by Antonio López de Santa Anna,caudillo War with U.S. Benito Juárez Zapotec Indian Liberal revolt,1854 New constitution, 1857 Privileges of army and church diminished Lands sold to individuals French in to assist conservatives Maximilian von Habsburg 1867, French withdraw Maximilian executed Juárez in office to 1872
Argentina: The Port and the Nation United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, 1816 Liberals v. federalists Juan Manuel de Rosas, 1831 –Federalist (despotic ruler-weakened central gvt. “death to the savage, filthy Unitarians” –Overthrown, 1852 Reunification, –Domingo F. Sarmiento Brought liberal changes i.e. political /economic reforms (agricultural production increased; population tripled; education, transportation; nationalism increased; Ended war with American Indians—opened land to ranching/agriculture “The King can be compared with a father, and reciprocally a father can be compared with the King, and then set the duties of the monarch by those of the parental authority. Love, govern, reward and punish is what a King and a father must do. In the end, there's nothing less legitimate than anarchy, which removes property and security from the people, as force becomes then the only right.” While president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, Sarmiento championed intelligent thought including education for children and women and democracy for Latin America.
The Brazilian Empire Pedro I 1824, liberal constitution Abdicates, 1831 Pedro II Regency, Economic prosperity Coffee export Slavery intensified Infrastructure improved Abolition Achieved, 1888 Republican Party Formed, 1871 Coup, 1889 –Republic founded
Mexico and Argentina: Examples of Economic Transformation Porfirio Díaz (Mexico – Juarez’s general) 1876, president Foreign capital used for infrastructure Revolt suppressed –imposed strong central gvt , Civil War –Electoral reform Argentina Meat exports Immigration – Distinct culture 1890s –Socialist party forms –Strikes from 1910 Radical Party Middle class 1916, in power
Uncle Sam Goes South Spanish-American War, 1898 Cuba American investment Puerto Rico annexed Colombia U.S. backs revolution
“The Colossus of the North” US dominated affairs in the Americas – Monroe Doctrine. US takes Texas and Mexican Cession. US gains independence for Cuba. Roosevelt Corollary – US will police the America. US sent troops to Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua. US built Panama Canal – “Yankee imperialism.”
Spanish-American War – Cuba became U.S. protectorate and Puerto Rico was annexed outright In 1903 the US supported a rebellion to enable Panama to separate itself from Colombia Between – American military forces were sent to Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, panama, Colombia, Haiti and the Dominican Republic
The Caribbean: An “American Lake”
The Panama Canal Panama Canal – The United States supported an independence movement in Panama, then part of Colombia, in return for the exclusive rights for a canal across the Panamanian isthmus
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna – Mexican general who seized power after the collapse of the Mexican republic in 1835 Mexican-American War – ( ) – Devastating defeat for Mexican forces **Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) – Treaty between the United States and Mexico; Mexico lost one-half of its national territory (Mexico forced to sign)
Gender and Race I.Women fought in rebellions and revolts but did not achieve anything in the new government(s): 1.Can not vote 2.Can not hold offices 3.Can not become lawyers 4.Could not enter into a contract without permission of husband 5.Unwed women under the authority of their father 6.Lower class women fair better due to economic necessities: -economic freedom; control local markets; greater freedom compared to elite women II.Education: women had responsibility to educate their children first girl school in Mexico city; increased in secular education; result—gave women opportunities & demanded basic freedom/rights III.Skin color continued to be a stigma; “Indian” label of natives viewed as derogatory