Presentation on theme: "AP World History Chapter 25"— Presentation transcript:
1 AP World History Chapter 25 The Consolidation of Latin America
2 4 External events impacts political changes America RevolutionFrench RevolutionExtension of French Rev. to HaitiFrance invasion of Portugal and SpainPolitical IdeasCentralist Federalist Positivism
3 The Colonial Class System Creoles – Europeans - Born in the AmericansPeninsulares – Born in Spain or PortugalMestizos – Mixed – Native Indians - EuropeanMulattos – Mixed – Blacks - EuropeanThe great differences in status based on color – created outcaste and rebellionsNative IndiansBlack Slaves
4 Causes of Political Change American RevolutionModelFrench RevolutionIdeologyToo radicalToussaint L'Overture1791 slave revoltRepublic of Haiti, 1804French invasion of Spain
5 Napoleon sent a French army to crush the rebellion in Haiti Toussaint tricked into surrendering in 1802; he was shipped to France where he died a year later in a dungeonFrench troops weakened by yellow fever; eventually fell to the rebel forces
7 Latin American States After the Revolutions *Caudillos – Leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government
8 Spanish-American Independence Struggles MexicoMiguel de Hidalgo1810 Rebellion, alliance with Indians and mestizosAugustín de IturbideEnded the Mexican War of Independence1824, collapse of new state
9 Miguel de Hidalgo – 1810 – a parish priest roused the Indians and Mestizos – revolted – after early victories he lost Creole support and was executedSeptember 16, the first day of the uprising, is Mexico’s Independence DayConservative Creoles under Augustin Iturbide (ee-toor-BEE-day) won independence, first emperor in Emperor AgustinMexico became a republic in 1824 –“el Grito de Dolores” – The cry of Dolores – Mexicans to fight for independence and Liberty.
10 Mexican War of Independence Mexican War of Independence ( ), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, The Mexican War of Independence movement was led by Mexican-born Spanish, and mestizos who sought independence from Spain. It started as an idealistic peasants' rebellion against their colonial masters, but finally ended as an unlikely alliance between liberales (liberals) and conservadores (conservatives).Agustín de Iturbide, A favorite of the Mexican church hierarchy, Iturbide was the personification of conservative Creole values, devoutly religious, and committed to the defense of property rights and social privileges became the first emperor.
11 Cause of the Mexican Revolution 1910? Porfirio Diaz (dictatorial reign)– ruled Mexico form – conservative , centralize government with support of army, large landowners, Catholic ChurchReal wages of workers declinedLiberal landowner – Francesco Madero led a series of strikes throughout the country. He forced Diaz from power and open the door to a wider revolution
12 Maximilian von Habsburg – Austrian archduke proclaimed emperor of Mexico as a result of French intervention in 1862 ; after the French withdrawal he was executed in 1867 by Juarez’s firing squadBenito Juarez-Indian Lawyer who led a liberal revolution against Santa Anna; defeated by the French, who made Maximilian emperor; returned to power fromPorfirio Diaz –One of Juarez’s generals ; elected president of Mexico in 1876 and dominated polities for 35 years
13 1825, all Spanish colonies independent Simon BolívarCreole, Visionary, Revolutionary, & LiberatorIndependence movement, 1810, victoryGrand ColumbiaVenezuela, Colombia, Ecuador1830, splitJosé de San MartínLiberator of Spanish South America.Buenos Aires, Peru, Chili, Argentina
14 Bolivar’s Accomplishment Gran Colombia – Existed as an independent state until 1830 when Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador became separate independent nations
15 No Unity! Failure of Bolivar’s dream for a united South America: Many newly independent countries struggle with civil wars.By 1830s, geographic factors (mts., the Amazon, etc.) plus cultural differences defeated attempts at unification.Gran Columbia.United Provinces of Central America.
16 Bolivar’s FailureAfter uniting Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador into Gran Columbia, he left to help free the rest of Latin America.He died a year later, with his goal of uniting all of South America unfulfilled!
17 Brazilian Independence 1807, French invasion of PortugalRoyal family, elite, to BrazilRio de Janeiro, capitalKing João VI (John VI) of PortugalIn Brazil until 1820Pedro left in Brazil as regent1822, Pedro declares Brazil independentPedro I
18 Enlightenment idealsRole of Catholic church?EqualitySlaveryIndians, mestizosFranchisement
19 Latin American Economies and World Markets, 1820-1870 Britain, U.S. support independencein exchange for economic powerDependency on foreign consumersMid-Century StagnationAfter 1850European market creates demandChurch, conservatives slow changeLandowners, peasants ally in oppositionThe Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention.
20 Mexico: Instability and Foreign Intervention 1824, Mexican ConstitutionConservative centralists v. liberal federalistsReforms attempted, 1830sOpposed by Antonio López de Santa Anna ,caudilloWar with U.S. Benito JuárezZapotec IndianLiberal revolt,1854New constitution, 1857Privileges of army and church diminishedLands sold to individualsFrench in to assist conservativesMaximilian von Habsburg1867, French withdrawMaximilian executedJuárez in office to 1872
21 Argentina: The Port and the Nation United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, 1816Liberals v. federalistsJuan Manuel de Rosas, 1831Federalist(despotic ruler-weakened central gvt.“death to the savage, filthy Unitarians”Overthrown, 1852Reunification,Domingo F. SarmientoBrought liberal changes i.e. political /economic reforms (agricultural production increased; population tripled; education, transportation; nationalism increased;Ended war with American Indians—opened land to ranching/agriculture“The King can be compared with a father, and reciprocally a father can be compared with the King, and then set the duties of the monarch by those of the parental authority. Love, govern, reward and punish is what a King and a father must do. In the end, there's nothing less legitimate than anarchy, which removes property and security from the people, as force becomes then the only right.”While president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, Sarmiento championed intelligent thought including education for children and women and democracy for Latin America.
22 The Brazilian Empire Pedro I 1824, liberal constitution Abdicates, 1831Pedro IIRegency,Economic prosperityCoffee exportSlavery intensifiedInfrastructure improvedAbolitionAchieved, 1888Republican PartyFormed, 1871Coup, 1889Republic founded
23 Mexico and Argentina: Examples of Economic Transformation Porfirio Díaz (Mexico – Juarez’s general)1876, presidentForeign capital used for infrastructureRevolt suppressed –imposed strong central gvt., Civil WarElectoral reformArgentinaMeat exportsImmigrationDistinct culture1890sSocialist party formsStrikes from 1910Radical PartyMiddle class1916, in power
24 Uncle Sam Goes South Spanish-American War, 1898 Cuba American investment Puerto Rico annexedColombiaU.S. backs revolution
25 “The Colossus of the North” US dominated affairs in the Americas.1823 – Monroe Doctrine.US takes Texas and Mexican Cession.US gains independence for Cuba.Roosevelt Corollary – US will police the America.US sent troops to Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua.US built Panama Canal – “Yankee imperialism.”
26 Spanish-American War - 1898 – Cuba became U. S Spanish-American War – Cuba became U.S. protectorate and Puerto Rico was annexed outrightIn 1903 the US supported a rebellion to enable Panama to separate itself from ColombiaBetween – American military forces were sent to Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, panama, Colombia, Haiti and the Dominican Republic
28 The Panama CanalPanama Canal – The United States supported an independence movement in Panama, then part of Colombia, in return for the exclusive rights for a canal across the Panamanian isthmus
29 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna – Mexican general who seized power after the collapse of the Mexican republic in 1835Mexican-American War – ( ) – Devastating defeat for Mexican forces**Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) – Treaty between the United States and Mexico; Mexico lost one-half of its national territory (Mexico forced to sign)
30 Gender and RaceI. Women fought in rebellions and revolts but did not achieve anything in the new government(s):Can not voteCan not hold officesCan not become lawyersCould not enter into a contract without permission of husbandUnwed women under the authority of their fatherLower class women fair better due to economic necessities:-economic freedom; control local markets; greater freedom compared to elite womenII. Education: women had responsibility to educate their children1869- first girl school in Mexico city; increased in secular education; result—gave women opportunities & demanded basic freedom/rightsIII. Skin color continued to be a stigma; “Indian” label of natives viewed as derogatory