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The Latin American Independence Movements Inspired by the _______________ and ____________________ Revolutions, people across Latin America rose up against.

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Presentation on theme: "The Latin American Independence Movements Inspired by the _______________ and ____________________ Revolutions, people across Latin America rose up against."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Latin American Independence Movements Inspired by the _______________ and ____________________ Revolutions, people across Latin America rose up against their colonial powers. Beyond the revolutions, several things led to these uprisings. The ideas of the _________________ inspired a wish for equality. Most political power was held by the ________________________, people who were born in Spain. The other social classes wanted to have a share of the power. The Creoles, especially, wish to have power. They were the wealthy ____________, and the most ___________. Leaders of the revolutions idolized Enlightenment thought, especially by John Locke. They morphed his idea into the saying “______________________________________.” When Napoleon placed his brother Joseph on the throne of Spain, colonists across Latin America took that as a sign to revolt. They felt that the Spanish and French, occupied with problems of their own, would not pay any attention to their colonies. Many economic policies from the colonial powers were not beneficial to the colonies. _________________________ policies were destroying any economic progress the independent nations made. American French Enlightenment peninsulars landowners educated Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Mercantilist

3 As early as 1790, revolts were starting in Latin America. Mostly _____________________, these revolts were quickly put down. However, a successful slave revolt was led by ___________________________ in Haiti in 1792. L’Ouverture ruled Haiti until _________ when Napoleon finally sent an army to retake the colony. He was captured and died in prison in 1803. However, L’Ouverture inspired other people in Haiti to revolt against the French. This, plus a deadly outbreak of __________________allowed Haiti to become completely independent by 1804. slave uprisings Touissant L’Overture 1802 yellow fever

4 Across Latin America, the success of Toussaint L’Ouverture led to other uprisings. Different parts of the Spanish Empire rose up against their oppressors. Natives in ___________ led by Father _____________________ marched on Mexico City in 1810. Mexico Miguel Hidalgo

5 The two most significant revolutionary leaders in South America were _____________________ and _________________________. These men, both creoles, combined to force the Spanish out of South America for good, starting in 1811 when Bolivar’s Venezuela declared independence. However, the Spanish would not give up the fight so easily, and forced Bolivar into exile twice. Nonetheless, complete independence was gained in 1819. San Martin’s Argentina followed Venezuela’s lead, and declared independence in 1816. Along with _____________________, he helped Argentina gain independence. But, the Spanish remained in South America. Therefore, in 1821, after meeting high in the mountains of Peru, Bolivar and San Martin forged an alliance, and completely drove the Spaniards from South America. Together, they declared a united nation in South America, ________________________. Geographic factors prevented it from lasting very long, and eventually it split into the nations of Panama, Columbia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Simon Bolivar Jose de San Martin Bernando O’Higgins Gran Columbia

6 Brazil gained her independence from ________________ when __________________, son of the emperor of Portugal, proclaimed Brazil to be a free and independent nation. Portugal Pedro

7 One of the political hotspots in Latin America was _________________. While being independent almost as long as the United States, there was no real political stability. Because of so much turmoil, foreign nations did not take an interest in starting businesses in Mexico. Many of her natural resources went untouched as a result. Mexico

8 While the uprisings did gain independence for many nations, some of the problems that existed prior to these movements still existed after them. ______________________ benefited the most. They now held political, as well as economic power. But, the idea of a united South America never happened because of ____________________ and __________________ obstacles. Even in their own countries, Creoles never established governments that got the support of all people. ______________________ became common in Latin America, but never accomplished anything. Disputes arose over the distribution of __________________ lands. Any attempts at reform were resisted by the wealthy, leaving most of the poor still without any land. Interestingly enough, these Latin American nations were protected by the US when President James Monroe issued the ______________________, which stated that the Americas were no longer open for colonization. Creoles geographiccultural Dictatorships church Monroe Doctrine

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