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Reaction and Revolution: The Growth of Nationalism

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Presentation on theme: "Reaction and Revolution: The Growth of Nationalism"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reaction and Revolution: The Growth of Nationalism
By Milda Vielaviciute Lauryn Childress Anja Bjelakovic Andy Oliver Andryw Gooding

2 Reaction and Revolution: The Growth of Nationalism
After Napoleon’s reign ended, Great European powers moved to restore much of the old order Met at the Congress of Vienna One proposition was to intervene in rebellions Britain did not agree

3 Forces for Change Liberalism – belief that people should be as free from restraint as possible Adopted by middle-class, especially bourgeoisie Nationalism – belief that primary political loyalty of people should be to their countries Threat to existing political order In 1848, these forces erupted

4 Revolutions of 1848 France King Louis Philippe refused to make changes and was overthrown Radical Republicans took over and wrote a new constitution Established a republic In the elections held for president, Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (the nephew of Napoleon) won

5 Revolution in Central Europe
Germanic Confederation 38 loosely connected states German and Prussian rulers promised a constitution, free press, jury trials and other liberal reforms, but they never came Germany’s revolution failed Austrian Empire Mix of many states who wanted their own governments Czech revolt was crushed, meaning the failure of the Austrian Empire revolution

6 Revolts in the Italian States
Italy was under the control of Austria Young Italy, the Italian unity movement, initially succeeded Within a year, Austria reestablished control Revolts had failed

7 Nationalistic Revolts in Latin America
While Spain and Portugal were weak after Napoleon, the Latin American states arose Miguel Hidalgo Revolutionary hero Gathered a large group of Indians and revolted against the Spanish Forces were crushed Other Indians overthrew the Spanish and Augustin de Iturbide was named the first emperor of Mexico. In South America, Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar led successful revolutions against the Spanish

8 The Difficulties of Nation Building
The new nations had no experience in self governing Tried to become republics Soon they became ruled by militaristic force Since Latin America was a major source of raw goods, it soon became controlled by foreign powers Military aristocracy took over much of the power Caudillas

9 Nationalism in the Balkans: The Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Question
The southern states under Ottoman control sought change, especially at the Empire began to decline Serbia freed itself Greece also broke away from the Turks A year later, Russia declared war on Ottoman Empire British and French fleets also helped Treaty of Adrianople Gave Russia protectorate over Moldavia and Wallachia Allowed Russia, France and Britain to decide the fate of Greece In 1830, Greece became an independent kingdom

10 The Crimean War Russians and Turks fought because of Russian demands for the right to protect Christian shrines in Palestine Turks, and later France and Britain, declared war on Russia During the war, Russia was defeated Results Russia was ashamed of the defeat and withdrew from the world for 20 years Austria had no allies Helped Italy and Germany in becoming independent states.

11 Conclusion Liberalism and nationalism transformed the world
Revolts in Western Europe initially failed but succeeded later Revolts in Eastern Europe succeeded, but resulted in withdrawal of Britain and Russia from world affairs

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