Presentation on theme: "Thailand II Government/History 352 Campbell University."— Presentation transcript:
Thailand II Government/History 352 Campbell University
Student Revolt of 1973 Oct 6 - Twelve students arrested for leafleting. Thousands protest. Oct 14 Hundreds killed as army suppresses demonstrations. King intervenes. Thanom Kittikachorn exiled. Replaced with Sanya Thammasak, reactor of Thammasat University. Civilian rule restored. Sanya Thammasak
Civilian Rule Government in turmoil. Seni Pramoj & Kukrit Pramoj serve as P.M.s (1975-76). Competing pressures. –Leftist: National Student Center of Thailand and Farmers’ Federation of Thailand. –Rightist: Nawapon & Red Gaurs. Assassination of Socialist Party Secretary-General, Dr. Boonsanong Bunyothayan. Vandalism of P.M’s (Kukrit’s) home & Thammasat University. 1975 election violence. –1976 – All U.S. forces & equipment withdrawn. –1976 – Thais establish diplomatic relations with Vietnam.
Constitutional Military Rule 1980-88 – Prem Thinsulanond as P.M.. –Coped with a huge refugee problem from Cambodia, Laos and Burma. Stopped Vietnamese incursions. –Internal Communist became disillusioned. Economic development and amnesty ended insurgency. –Relied on a freely elected legislature. 1988-91 – Chatichai Choonhaven as P.M. –A retired general, hero of 1972 Black September hijacking at Don Muang and a wealthy businessman. –First P.M. to be an elected member of parliament since 1976. Had held a variety of ministerial posts. –Increased wages and salaries, banned some Teak logging. Proposed Suwannaphum (Golden Land).
1991 Coup The Coup: –National Peace Keeping Council (NPKC) headed by Gen. Sunthorn Kongsompong and Gen. Suchinda Kaprayoon –Siezed Chatichai at Don Muang enroute to an audience with the King in Chiang Mai. Charged with possessing “unusual wealth.” Corruption and perceived lack of respect for military were the real problems. –Declared marshal law, took over radio and TV stations, but did not ban political parties. –Appointed Anand Punyarachun to head interim government. A well respected diplomat.
Revolt of 1992 The Revolt centered on resistance to the restoration of military rule. –NPKC appoints Suchinda as P.M. “Angels” demand that M.P. be an elected representative. –500,000 people protest led by Chamlong Srimuang, who conducted a hunger strike. Suppression was brutal. –King intervenes. Suchinda resigned. Chamlong Srimuang
Transition To Democracy Anand Panyarachun served as interim P.M. again for 4 months. Chuan Leekpai was elected P.M. in 1992 and served until 1995, making him the longest serving civilian Thai P.M. He sought to democratize the military dominated political system.
Economic Crises of 1997 Chavalit Yongchaiyudh replaced Chuan Leekpai as P.M. and serves until 1997 Asian currency crises. Reduced trade with Japan in particular leads the Thais to float the Baht. It looses 60% of value. The real estate market crashes which starts a chain reaction. Chuan Leekpai becomes P.M. for second time. He institutes reforms and requires transparency and accountability. The crises continued.
Current Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawat has served as P.M. since 1998. He was born into a wealthy merchant family in Chiang Mai. Attended Thai Police Academy and graduate school in the U.S. Founded a highly successful telecommunications business and the Thai Rak Thai party
Questions What led to the Student Revolt of 1973? Which P.M., when ambassador to the U.S. at the beginning of WWII, refused to formally declare war? Which P.M. appeared with Marlon Brando in the Ugly American? What measures did P.M. Prem Thinsulanond take to eliminate Communist insurgency? Which P.M. substituted himself for ten Israeli hostages in the 1972 Black September hijacking?
More Questions The 1991 coup was conducted by ____ ____ ____ Council. What led to the 1992 Revolt? Who is the current P.M. of Thailand?
Thai Institutions Constitution: –15 changes have transitioned the country from autocratic to democratic. Most recent drafted and signed in 1997 under leadership Anand Punyarachun. Military: –Completely dominated government until 1992. Why? –1980 Order 66/2523 gave military responsibility for defeating Communism: Dual Function Greening Of Isarn (Northeast) & New Hope (South)
Thai Institutions Bureaucracy: –Provided stability in spite of frequent political change. –Technocrats lost credibility after 1997 economic collapse. Parliament: 1997 Constitution –Both senate & house elected. –P.M. must be a member of house. –Cabinet members must resign elected positions.
Thai Institutions Political Parties: Becoming respectable. –Angelic vs. Satanic Parties. –Military political parties. –Public campaign against buying votes. –Pork & constituency service. –Parties formed around personalities. –Political parties “buying” candidates. Monarchy: Highly venerated & influential. –Crown Prince Vachiralongkorn is heir apparent. –Crown Princess Sirindhorn.
Thai Institutions Peasantry: Economically, politically active. –65% of population involved in farming. –50% rice, remainder diversified crops. Chinese Thai Community: Assimilating. –10% of population; encouraged to intermarry. –Dominate economy. –Have become core of professional & middle classes. –Anti-military rule.
Role of Women Women –Important role in professions of medicine, law, accounting & academia. % > U.S. –Remain quite limited in politics & public sector.
Economic & Social Issues Economic growth rate 10%-11%; 7% sustained. –Export driven economy. –Political stability –Free market; extensive foreign investment. –Reinvestment in economy by Thailand’s Chinese. Population growth rate slowed from 3% to 1.4%. Number of technically trained graduates too low. Depletion of natural resources – forests. Infrastructure overtaxed. Tourism, prostitution (800,000) & AIDS
Foreign Affairs New nationalism reflected in tone foreign relations. Friendly relations with U.S. a counterbalance. Intellectual property rights (IPR) 1992 ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA). “God’s Army,” Karen refugees.
What Do You Know? What was the name to Thailand prior to 1938. When did Thailand become a constitutional monarchy? What is “dual function?’ What is the name of the King’s wife? Where is ASEAN headquartered? What is Thailand’s greatest export? What famous structure were WWII POW’s forced to build by the Japanese in Thailand?