Presentation on theme: "Cambodia. 1863: French Protectorate Cambodians are descendents of the Angkor Empire which was at its peak during the 10 th -13 th century. But with attacks."— Presentation transcript:
1863: French Protectorate Cambodians are descendents of the Angkor Empire which was at its peak during the 10 th -13 th century. But with attacks from present day Thailand and Viet Nam the empire declined. Soon after, the King placed Cambodia under French rule and became part of French Indochina in 1887.
1941: A New King When Norodom passed away in 1904, the throne was not passed onto his sons but to his brother Sisowath. Sisowath ruled until 1941 when Norodom Sihanouk becomes king. Also during this time, Cambodia is occupied by Japan during WWII. With a new king, Cambodians felt that they should not be under control by the French anymore.
1953: Independence In 1946, the French granted Cambodia self government with the French Union. A constitution was drawn up in 1947 and a treaty was signed in 1949 making Cambodia an associated state with France. However, King Norodom Sihanouk wanted complete independence and was awarded it in 1953.
1955-1960: The Ins and Outs In 1955, King Norodom Sihanouk abdicates his throne and gives it to his father to rule. Norodom Sihanouk seeks a political career and becomes a premier. However, his father passes away in 1960 and his mother, Queen Kossamak Nearireak takes over. Later, Norodom Sihanouk becomes king again.
1970: Take Your Sides Throughout the Viet Nam war, Sihanouk remained neutral to both sides. He allowed North Viet Nam to use Cambodian ports and allowed the US to bomb Viet Cong hideouts in Cambodia. However, the Cambodians grew discontent with this. While Sihanouk was abroad, General Lon Nol led a military coup to overthrow Sihanouk.
1975: Year Zero In 1975, the Khmer Rouge led by Pot Pot overthrew Lon Nol and took over Cambodia. He renames Cambodia as Kampuchea. They believed that Cambodians will be laborers working on a one federation of collective farms. The Khmer Rouge wanted to get rid of any intellectuals, educated people and anybody against their ideas and communism. Hundreds of thousands of the educated middle-classes are tortured and executed in special centers. Others starve, or die from disease or exhaustion. The total death toll during the next three years is estimated to be at least 1.7 million.
1979: Vietnamese Invasion In 1978, Viet Nam decided to invade Cambodia and take control of the country. The Vietnamese overthrew the Khmer Rouge and drove them to the Thai jungles. The Vietnamese tried to install a puppet government and reconstruct the country. However, Pol Pot’s regime destroyed the land, ruined the economy and he killed all of the potential intellectuals that could have jumpstarted the country again.
1985: Starting Over While the Khmer Rouge hid in the Thai jungles, the US were giving them help. The Khmer Rouge continued to fight Viet Nam to gain control of Cambodia again. In 1985, Hun Sen was elected as prime minister, and peace talks immediately began. In 1989, Viet Nam withdrew its last troops out of Cambodia.
1991: Peace? In 1991, a peace treaty was signed by all opposing parties. However, the treaty called for all groups to be disarmed and the Khmer Rouge refused. With that, Sihanouk denounced the Khmer Rouge and aligned himself with Hun Sen. Norodom Sihanouk again became Head of state.
1993: Democratic Elections In 1993, the first ever Democratic elections were held. The Royalist FUNCINPEC party won the most seats and Hun Sen’s Cambodian People's Party came in second. A coalition government is formed with FUNCINPEC's Prince Norodom Ranariddh as prime minister and Hun Sen as deputy prime minister. The monarchy is restored, and Sihanouk becomes king again.
1997: Only One Can Rule The coalition government of Norodom Ranariddh and Hun Sen was crumbling. Hun Sen set up a coup and replaced Ranariddh with Ung Huot. The coup delayed Cambodia’s membership with ASEAN. Also, in 1997, the Khmer Rouge was falling apart and Pol Pot was imprisoned. He later died in 1998.
2001: Justice Begins In 2001, the Cambodian Senate approved a law which created a tribunal. This would allow the Khmer Rouge leaders to be tried for their war crimes. With the Japanese financially supporting the tribunal, justice can be served.
2004: Like Father, Like Son In October 2004, King Norodom Sihanouk abdicated his throne in favor of his son. A nine member council elected Norodom Sihamoni to the throne a week later. King Norodom Sihamoni is the reigning king today.
2005: The Green Light The tribunal had encountered many problems. There were no funds going towards it and the Khmer Rouge leaders were getting old. Some feared that they might die before being tried. However in 2005, The UN gave the green light to start the tribunal.
2007: Justice is Served In 2007, trials began for the most notorious leaders of the Khmer Rouge. Nuon Chea was arrested in September and is being tried for his crimes. And in November, the tribunal holds its first public hearing with Comrade Duch.