Presentation on theme: "Vietnam. History Thousand year occupation by the Chinese. 1847 French colonization began; region called Indo China. Frustration at colonization."— Presentation transcript:
History Thousand year occupation by the Chinese. 1847 French colonization began; region called Indo China. Frustration at colonization by the Nationalists and the Communists. People and resources exploited by the French.
Communism and Ho Chi Minh 1 st communist group founded by Ho Chi Minh in 1925. 1941, Ho Chi Minh creates the Viet Minh party and pushed for national unity against any occupier. During WWII, Vietnamese treated terribly by the Japanese. 1945, Ho Chi Minh declared independence for Vietnam under Viet Minh control.
“You will kill 10 of our men, and we will kill 1 of yours, and in the end it will be you who tire of it.”
End of WWII, the French returned to Vietnam to reclaim their colony. Franco-Viet Minh War from 1947-1954; Viet Minh win and French and kicked out. U.S. helped French to stop the spread of communism. Vietnam is divided into two sections: North led by Ho Chi Minh. South led by Ngo Diem anti-communist Catholic and friend of the U.S.
South Vietnam National elections were not held to unify the country. Diem became a tyrant and the government became family run rather than a democracy. South Vietnamese students and monks protested against Diem. Military coup killed Diem and South Vietnam went into chaos.
North Vietnam Ho Chi Minh begins to eliminate any opposition. Private land is seized and given to the State. Hasty trials results in 10-15,000 executions. Attempt to “liberate” the South begins in 1959. National Liberation Front (NLF) aka, Viet Cong started taking over the south.
U.S. interaction with Vietnam U.S. believed if Vietnam became a communist country a “domino effect” would occur in the world. U.S. belief that if one state in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow. Started sending money and advisors in 1950. American soldiers there for 25 years. Combat troops sent in 1965 to take out the Viet Cong village by village. Napalm used destroying the environment.
Viet Cong continued to fight against the U.S. Innocent villagers were killed and many turned to the VC for help. Tet Offensive was the largest battle and turning point; Americans became unsupportive of fighting. 2,000 South Vietnamese deaths 32,000 VC deaths.
American soldiers, at Mai Lai, killed innocent Vietnamese and was leaked to media. American resentment toward the war increased and antiwar protests began. 1969, President Nixon began “vietnamisation” to make Vietnamese fight on their own.
Vietnam War Impact 1973, Paris Peace Accords made a cease fire and withdrew U.S. troops. Over 200,000 South Vietnamese soldiers killed. Estimated 1 million North Vietnamese and VC deaths. Approximately four million civilians were injured or killed during the war.
1973-1975 South vs. North. 1975, South surrendered making Vietnam one communist country. Throughout the conflict the U.S. never declared war on Vietnam. Reunification for Vietnam was difficult; destroyed countryside, physically and mentally battered people, anger at each other.
Tens of thousands of people who supported the south were imprisoned without trial and sent to labor camps. Business people, intellectuals, artists, journalists etc. Anti-capitalist campaign was launched, seizing private property and businesses. 1989, Vietnamese embrace the market economy. 1994, U.S. embargo lifted and diplomatic relations started again. Embargo restriction of trade with a country. Today Vietnam has economic freedom, but remains controlled by the Communist Party.