Presentation on theme: "T HE P UEBLO R EVOLT August 10-21, 1680. T HE P UEBLOS Location: Arizona & New Mexico Accommodation: settled down on the top of cliffs in terraced buildings."— Presentation transcript:
T HE P UEBLO R EVOLT August 10-21, 1680
T HE P UEBLOS Location: Arizona & New Mexico Accommodation: settled down on the top of cliffs in terraced buildings made of abode (mud & straw) Food: grew crops of maize and beans (farmers) Success: irrigation
A NTECEDENTS 1st exploration by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1540 (from Mexico to North)
A NTECEDENTS Colonization by Don Juan de Onate in 1598 Rumors of mines that Coronado had missed Need to secure the northern border of New Spain „Your main purpose,” the viceroy’s instruction to Onate read, „ shall be the service of God our Lord, the spreading of His holy Catholic faith, and the reduction and pacification of the natives of the said provinces.” Successful settlement by Spanish
C IRCUMSTANCES UNDER S PANISH Prohibition of traditional religion New economic system: encomienda (trusteeship labor system) New farming implements (i.e.: plough) New security against neighbor Indians (Apache & Navajo raiding) They (Pueblos & Spaniards) lived in peace together
W HY DID THE REBELLION DEVELOP ? Drought swept the region in 1670 Famine among the Pueblos Diseases appeared by the Europeans (great reduce of number of the Indians) Disappointment of the Catholic Religion The people turned back to their old religion
A RRESTING IN 1675 Governor Juan Fransisco Trevino ordered the arrest of 47 Pueblo medicine men (reason: witchcraft) Pueblo leaders went to Santa Fe (where the prisoners were held) The lack of the Spanish soldiers (they were in fighting with Apaches) made Trevino to release the prisoners Among those medicine men was Popé (a San Juan Indian)
P OPÉ (1631-1688) „Ripe Squash” The leader of the Revolt Refuge at Taos Pueblo Planned the revolt and & congregated most of the Pueblo Tribes Leaders Pueblos spoke different languages How could they communicate and keep the revolt in secret?
S IGNS Use of drawings on deerskin representing the method of attack Use of knotted cords representing the number of the day left before the revolt
T HE LAST DAYS The day of the attack had been fixed on 11th of August Two dispatched runners were captured (with a message) by the Spaniard who found out about the revolt The revolt started one day earlier
T HE ATTACK The 1st offensive: Taos, Picuris & Tewa 380 Spaniards were killed (men, women & children) The settlers fled to Santa Fe (the only Spanish city) Popé’s warriors cut off Santa Fe’s water supply Antonio de Otermín (Governor of New Mexico) called for a general retreat 21st of August 3,000 Spanish settler streamed out the capital to south
W AR S TORES Bows Arrows Small shields Lances Rocks Arquebuses Swords Daggers Shields PueblosSpaniards
T HE G REAT V ICTORY & P EACE New Mexico was left to Indians Was it really a great victory and peace? Yes, it was a great victory! The most successful Indian uprising in the history of West How about peace?
P EACE ? Popé made himself a governor of Pueblos He was very demanding of them Indians had to destroy all the religious imageries of Catholic Church He forbade the planting of wheat, barley, fruit trees and the use of the new farming implements He command those Indians who had been married according to the rites of the Catholic Church to dismiss their wives and to take others after the old native tradition
P EACE ? New generations grew up under Spanish rules Popé’s ideas were not maintainable Moreover he died in 1688. The existence of the diversity of Pueblo Tribes (separated by hundreds of miles and 8 different languages) made them to quarreled about who would occupy Santa Fe (the capital) and rule over the country.
P OSSIBILITY OF S PANISH ‘ S RETURN ? Yes! Spaniards reconquered the province in 1692