Presentation on theme: "The event, causes and historical interpretations"— Presentation transcript:
1The event, causes and historical interpretations The Pueblo Revolt of 1680The event, causes andhistorical interpretations
2The EventLargest and most successful revolt against European control in North AmericaWell planned surprise attackEstimates suggest 400 Spaniards killed— out of 3,000 resident non-IndiansPueblos and others killed 21 of 33 Franciscan priests-some were humiliated, tortured and beaten before deathLed to the desecration of churches, ravaged missions, buildings and documents
3The EventTargets were the symbols of Spanish authority, religious and secularOrganized messengers carried secret calendars of knotted cords as countdown devices: untie a knot each day until completedOn the pre-arranged day, grab hidden weapons and “burn temples and break-up the bells”18 days of battle, on August 28 1,000 Spaniards retreat to El Paso del NorteCalled “The Great Southwestern Revolt” by historian Jack ForbesLed by Pope (Po pay) and Domingo Naranjo
4The Event 1692 recapture of New Mexico Don Diego de Vargas retook New MexicoThe momentum and anger toward the Spaniards had apparently abated.
5The Causes, Historians and Pueblo Tradition Historians tended to rely on Spanish sources only,Presents two serious liabilities: Spaniards could not easily understand nuances of societies radically different from their own, and few Spanish sources survived the eventSpanish survivors interpreted the revolt as a rejection of Christianity, or work of the devilSome attributed it to an “inborn hatred of the Spanish”Some attributed the revolt to a love for their ancient way of life, reactions to bad treatment
6The Causes: Van Hastings Garner Cites long-term harmonious relationship between Indians and SpaniardsSurvival of many Indian religious practices, often embedded in Catholic traditionDenies overworking of IndiansDenies long-term causes, spaniards and Pueblos relationship based on “mutual needs”Causes were immediate factors: drought, famine, Apache raids of the 1670s— major underlying causes.
7The Causes: Bowden and Gutierrez 1670s drought, famine, disease and Apache raidsSome Indians blamed the Spanish GodsTurn to their own religion to lift the droughtRebellion could be viewed as the only salvation: to maintain their communities and ways of lifeQuest for liberation from Spanish religionQuest to rescue their own religionResulted from long resentment toward the Spaniards and their religionPope (Po pay) was among 47 men that had been publicly flogged1675, hanging of 4 Indians at Santa Fe plaza on accusations of witchcraft.
8The Causes: Foote and Schackel Sexual exploitation of Indian women by Spanish soldiersResentment by Indian men