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The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 The event, causes and historical interpretations.

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Presentation on theme: "The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 The event, causes and historical interpretations."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 The event, causes and historical interpretations

2 The Event  Largest and most successful revolt against European control in North America  Well planned surprise attack  Estimates suggest 400 Spaniards killed— out of 3,000 resident non-Indians  Pueblos and others killed 21 of 33 Franciscan priests-some were humiliated, tortured and beaten before death  Led to the desecration of churches, ravaged missions, buildings and documents

3 The Event  Targets were the symbols of Spanish authority, religious and secular  Organized messengers carried secret calendars of knotted cords as countdown devices: untie a knot each day until completed  On the pre-arranged day, grab hidden weapons and “burn temples and break-up the bells”  18 days of battle, on August 28 1,000 Spaniards retreat to El Paso del Norte  Called “The Great Southwestern Revolt” by historian Jack Forbes  Led by Pope (Po pay) and Domingo Naranjo

4 The Event  1692 recapture of New Mexico  Don Diego de Vargas retook New Mexico  The momentum and anger toward the Spaniards had apparently abated.

5 The Causes, Historians and Pueblo Tradition  Historians tended to rely on Spanish sources only,  Presents two serious liabilities: Spaniards could not easily understand nuances of societies radically different from their own, and few Spanish sources survived the event  Spanish survivors interpreted the revolt as a rejection of Christianity, or work of the devil  Some attributed it to an “inborn hatred of the Spanish”  Some attributed the revolt to a love for their ancient way of life, reactions to bad treatment

6 The Causes: Van Hastings Garner  Cites long-term harmonious relationship between Indians and Spaniards  Survival of many Indian religious practices, often embedded in Catholic tradition  Denies overworking of Indians  Denies long-term causes, spaniards and Pueblos relationship based on “mutual needs”  Causes were immediate factors: drought, famine, Apache raids of the 1670s— major underlying causes.

7 The Causes: Bowden and Gutierrez  1670s drought, famine, disease and Apache raids  Some Indians blamed the Spanish Gods  Turn to their own religion to lift the drought  Rebellion could be viewed as the only salvation: to maintain their communities and ways of life  Quest for liberation from Spanish religion  Quest to rescue their own religion  Resulted from long resentment toward the Spaniards and their religion  Pope (Po pay) was among 47 men that had been publicly flogged  1675, hanging of 4 Indians at Santa Fe plaza on accusations of witchcraft.

8 The Causes: Foote and Schackel  Sexual exploitation of Indian women by Spanish soldiers  Resentment by Indian men


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