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The event, causes and historical interpretations

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1 The event, causes and historical interpretations
The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 The event, causes and historical interpretations

2 The Event Largest and most successful revolt against European control in North America Well planned surprise attack Estimates suggest 400 Spaniards killed— out of 3,000 resident non-Indians Pueblos and others killed 21 of 33 Franciscan priests-some were humiliated, tortured and beaten before death Led to the desecration of churches, ravaged missions, buildings and documents

3 The Event Targets were the symbols of Spanish authority, religious and secular Organized messengers carried secret calendars of knotted cords as countdown devices: untie a knot each day until completed On the pre-arranged day, grab hidden weapons and “burn temples and break-up the bells” 18 days of battle, on August 28 1,000 Spaniards retreat to El Paso del Norte Called “The Great Southwestern Revolt” by historian Jack Forbes Led by Pope (Po pay) and Domingo Naranjo

4 The Event 1692 recapture of New Mexico
Don Diego de Vargas retook New Mexico The momentum and anger toward the Spaniards had apparently abated.

5 The Causes, Historians and Pueblo Tradition
Historians tended to rely on Spanish sources only, Presents two serious liabilities: Spaniards could not easily understand nuances of societies radically different from their own, and few Spanish sources survived the event Spanish survivors interpreted the revolt as a rejection of Christianity, or work of the devil Some attributed it to an “inborn hatred of the Spanish” Some attributed the revolt to a love for their ancient way of life, reactions to bad treatment

6 The Causes: Van Hastings Garner
Cites long-term harmonious relationship between Indians and Spaniards Survival of many Indian religious practices, often embedded in Catholic tradition Denies overworking of Indians Denies long-term causes, spaniards and Pueblos relationship based on “mutual needs” Causes were immediate factors: drought, famine, Apache raids of the 1670s— major underlying causes.

7 The Causes: Bowden and Gutierrez
1670s drought, famine, disease and Apache raids Some Indians blamed the Spanish Gods Turn to their own religion to lift the drought Rebellion could be viewed as the only salvation: to maintain their communities and ways of life Quest for liberation from Spanish religion Quest to rescue their own religion Resulted from long resentment toward the Spaniards and their religion Pope (Po pay) was among 47 men that had been publicly flogged 1675, hanging of 4 Indians at Santa Fe plaza on accusations of witchcraft.

8 The Causes: Foote and Schackel
Sexual exploitation of Indian women by Spanish soldiers Resentment by Indian men

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