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and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s

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1 and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s
Rise of New Leaders and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s

2 Hitler’s Rise to Power

3 Totalitarianism Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural) Form of Dictatorship Few Individual freedoms Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms) Strict controls and laws Military state (secret police, army, military) Censorship (opposing literature and ideas) Propaganda (State controlled media – radio, newspapers, posters) One leader (dictator); charismatic Total conformity of people to ideas and leader Terror and Fear

4 Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitude
Who Would You Vote For? Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitude Contestant #3 I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy

5 Who Did You Vote For? Contestant #3 Contestant #2 Contestant #1

6 What was Hitler’s Early Life Like
Born to Alois and Klara Hitler in Austria. Mother dies - Hitler blames her Jewish doctor for her death. Wanted to be an artist – not accepted into the Vienna Academy of Art Paternal Grandfather - Jewish

7 Hitler’s Paintings

8 Hitlers failure in Art school in Vienna
Couldn’t paint/draw faces. Is this a pretty good indicator that he had issues ? What group of people would you guess ran the art schools that wouldn’t admit Hitler ?

9 How did WWI Influence Hitler?
He served in German Army: wounded and received two Iron Crosses for bravery. First success in his life –Made him love military Blamed Germany’s defeat on Jews, Communists, and “November Criminals” - signers of TOV

10 Why did Hitler Join the German Workers Party?
Army Sent Hitler to investigate in 1919. Gave a speech denouncing the TOV, Jews and Communists Asked to Join

11 The “Stabbed-in-the-Back” Theory
Disgruntled German WWI veterans

12 What is the NAZI Party? German Workers Party changed to National Socialist German Workers Party - “NAZI” Party Fascist beliefs Drafted a platform of 25 points Swastika – ancient symbol meaning good luck

13 What was the Beer Hall Putsch?
October 30, 1923 Failed NAZI Party Revolution- Hitler imprisoned While there he writes a book

14 Hitler in Landesberg Prison

15 What is Mein Kampf? “Mein Kampf” = “My Struggle”
Blueprint for Germany’s future Racism - hatred for Jews Scapegoat for Germanys problems 2. Lebensraum (living space) expansion of Germany’s border 3. World Domination

16 What Problems did Germany’s government have after WWI?
Weimar Republic – democracy established after WWI Faced Political opposition from communist fascists

17 What economic problems did the Weimar Republic have after WWI?
Reparations – repayments for war damages to Allies Caused: High Unemployment Starvation Desperation….

18 What is Hyperinflation?
US German Jan $1 = $5.21 Jan $1 = $191.81 Jan $1 = $17, 972 Dec $1 = $4.2 T Hyperinflation - soaring inflation (increase in prices due to too much money and too few goods)

19 Ripe for change

20 The German Mark

21 What did Hitler offer to the German people?
Promises, Promises Nationalists - Restore Germany to Greatness Wealthy Industrialist – stop communism Workers – end unemployment Blamed Others for Germany’s Problems Jews November Criminals Weimar Republic Great speaker Stop reparation payments, give all germans food and jobs, make them proud to be German again, blamed Jews for Germany’s problems

22 100,000 6.6 Billion 13 Abolish the Treaty of Versailles!
German Army limited to Germany had to pay reparations to allies Accept war guilt Germany lost % of its territories and colonies The Rhineland was demilitarised Anschluss (union) with Austria was forbidden Germans were forced to live in Czechoslavakia (the Sudentenland) and Poland (including Danzig) 100,000 6.6 Billion 13 Thought that the Treaty of Versailles was unjust and humiliating

23 How does Hitler become Chancellor?
“Brownshirts”– Hitler’s private army used fear tactics to eliminate opposition Used speeches and propaganda to gain support Nazi Party gains votes in Reichtag (German Legislature): 1930 = 18% of vote 1932 = 37% of vote Hitler appointed Chancellor (Prime Minister) in 1933 Hitler appted by President of Germany (Hindenburg), Chancellor similar to Prime Minister, to satisfy the Nazis in the Reichstag

24 How did Hitler Gain Total Power?
“Reichstag fire” Set by Nazi’s - blamed on communists -Hitler vowed to fight them Ended democracy in Germany Declared state of emergency and suspended individual rights and democratic protections (freedom of speech)

25 What actions did Hitler take as Der Furher – The Leader?
Ignored the TOV Rebuilt Army & Opened Weapons Factories Stopped reparations payments Economy improved New Jobs - military sector Decreased unemployment Eliminated political opposition Began planning for expansion of the Third Reich (Third Empire)

26 What was the Jewish Problem?
Hitler’s belief that Aryan German’s were the “Master Race” – blond hair, blue eyes, strong and disciplined Blamed Germany’s problems on the Jewish Racism and propaganda used to create distrust and hatred against Jews and non-Aryans.

27 “The Eternal Jew” Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community. This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew.

28 NAZI PROPAGANDA AGAINST THE DISABLED This frame from a filmstrip shows that the money needed to support a person with a hereditary disease can support an entire family of healthy Germans for the same amount of time.


30 Worlds Greatest Pep Rallies

31 January 1933 – Adolph Hitler becomes Chancellor (Primeminister) of Germany
A strong leader declared to the German people that he would restore German pride, rebuild their shattered country and have vengeance for the Treaty of Versailles.

32 Hitler was lionized as “der Fuehrer”, and the 3rd Reich born His pol. popularity grew b/c of ongoing propaganda, eco. growth (autobahn), foreign policy “successes”…

33 a massive state propaganda program was implemented, inc
a massive state propaganda program was implemented, inc. Nuremberg Rallies Goebbels, as Min. of Truth and Enlightenment, created the “Big Lie” Unacceptable ideas were stamped out – the “Burning of the Books”(Censorship) D-1

34 What actions did Hitler take to solve the “Jewish Problem”
1935 Nuremburg Laws Stipped Jews of Citizenship Can’t Hold Public Office Barred From Schools Boycott Jewish Businesses Banned non-Jews from marriage to Jews 1938 Kristallnacht Jews attacked on streets Jewish businesses vandalized Burned Synagogues Many Jews shot or sent to prison camps D-2,3


36 Formative What did the people want? What did Hitler Offer? 1.
Name and explain three ways Hitler gained control of Germany Name 3 problems Germany had after WWI

37 Nazism I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945. What is Nazism? extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarian based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race” belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them

38 1938 Time Man of the Year What do you think America thought of him ?

39 From foot-soldier to Führer
Hitler’s rise from corporal to Fuhrer was remarkable Sixteen years ( ) separate these two pictures Hitler’s rise is unprecedented in history From defeated and demoralized corporal to one of the most powerful men on the planet Key Question: How far was Hitler responsible for the outbreak of the Second World War? 5

40 Lebensraum Germany's future, Hitler declared, entirely depended on meeting its need for more Lebensraum -living space; the German nation had a right to a larger share of land. The question was where the space could be acquired "at the lowest cost." The answer lay not in overseas colonies but in Europe itself, "in immediate proximity to the Reich." Hitler’s ‘Greater Germany’ would have a population of over 85 million Germany’s land would be insufficent to feed this many people Hitler intended to expand Eastwards towards Poland and Russia. Russians and Poles were Slavs – Hitler believed them to be inferior and so Germany was entitled to take their land. 6

41 Hitler’s Actions: Timeline
DATE ACTION 1933 Took (G) out of League of Nations Began rearming (G) 1934 Tried to take over Austria but Mussolini prevented him 1935 Held massive rearmament rally in (G) 1936 Reintroduced conscription Sent troops into Rhineland Made anti-Communist alliance w/ Japan 1937 Tried out (G)’s new weapons in the Spanish Civil War Made anti-Communist alliance w/ Italy 1938 Took over Austria Took over the Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia 1939 Invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia Invaded Poland WAR!

42 Rearmament 1933: 1934: 1935: 1000s of unemployed drafted into army
8 1933: 1000s of unemployed drafted into army Reduced unemployment & built military Claimed only reason to rearm was because other nations had not disarmed Withdrew from L of N (Like Japan earlier) 1934: L of N disarmament conference fails L of N members not willing to disarm Members used military to reduce unemployment, not willing to change 1935: Massive ‘Proclamation of Freedom to Rearm Rally’

43 Rearmament 1936: Rearmament popular w/ Germans
H reintroduces conscription Rearmament popular w/ Germans Nazi support increased dramatically Pride restored to nation Humiliation of T of V partially erased Britain helped dismantle Versailles 1935: signed agreement allowing (G) a navy 35% as large of (E) navy (violation!!!) (E) believed restrictions on (G) in T of V too strict, (G) not able to defend itself (E) feared Central Europe was too weak to face growing Soviet power (France) really hacked off, but what could they do?

44 Proportion of German spending that went to armaments, 1935-1940

45 German armed forces in 1932 and 1939
(950,000) (8,250) (95) (30) (100,000) (36) 1932 1939 1932 1939 1932 1939 Warships Aircraft Soldiers Fill out the first row of your ‘Versailles Chart’ What factors allowed Hitler to get away with rearming Germany?

46 Reasons and Reactions No Action taken He needed larger armies to
13 He needed larger armies to protect Germany, and large armies also provided jobs and solved unemployment problems caused by The Great Depression. Britain sympathized with Germany, believing that the Treaty of Versailles had been too unfair on them. They also believed that a strong Germany would act as a barrier against Communism. The French were angry with Britain, but there was little they could do.


48 C The Spanish Civil War 1936: Civil War! 1937: Guernica!
Republican government & Pro-government Communist forces fought right-wing (Fascist) rebels General Francisco Franco Hitler saw war as opportunity to fight communism & give troops combat experience 1937: Guernica! (G) ‘Condor Legion’ (Luftwaffe) purposely targeted civilians to demoralize enemy League of Nations looked on w/o interfering

49 Remilitarization of the Rhineland
Rhineland a key industrial region Coal, steel, iron center (needed for rearmament) March 1936: Hitler’s first major risk Ordered troops moved into Rhineland Direct violation of T of V Direct violation of Locarno Treaties (1925) If Allies responded H would be humiliated Probable loss of power / military coup Why did Hitler do it? (France) & (Russia) just signed mutual defense pact Hitler claimed (G) was under threat from (Fra) & (Rus) H knew (England) felt T of V too harsh (England) would probably not intervene E-3,4,5

50 Reasons and Reactions Hitler got away with it! 6
France was going through an internal political crisis at the time and there was no political leadership to concentrate against Nazi Germany. Britain generally supported the view that Nazi Germany was only going into her own "backyard" and that this section of Versailles did not need to be enforced in the mid-1930’s. It was believed that Germany was behaving in a reasonable and understandable manner. France and Russia had made a treaty to protect each other from Germany. Hitler said that he should be allowed to place troops on his own frontier. Hitler got away with it!

51 Anschluss(Reuniting former German territory) with Austria, 1938
Hitler’s homeland, Austria Mainly ethnic Germans Many supported anschluss Hitler failed in 1934 because Mussolini opposed Hitler succeeded in 1938 (Mussolini now ally) Strong Nazi Party in Austria H had (A) Nazis riot & protest, demanding anschluss H pressured (A) Chancellor Schuschnigg to agree to anschluss Schuschnigg asked for (Eng) & (Fra) help, got no support March 1938: Schuschnigg ordered plebiscite but Hitler, fearing loss, sent troops in Under watchful eye of (G) army anschluss plebiscite was 99.75% in favor (har har har) 7-13 (E) Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain believed (A) & (G) should be united


53 Reasons and Reactions There were lots of German people
France and Britain refused to help Austria. The British prime Minister Neville Chamberlain felt the Treaty of Versailles was wrong and that Austria and Germany should be united. This was justified by the fact that they were both German speaking nations. Hitler was now even more convinced that Britain and France would not Stand in his way in the future. There were lots of German people living in Austria and Hitler said the people of Austria wanted to unite with Germany. Austria was economically weak and Hitler promised to solve this problem.

54 S Sudentenland 1938 Appeasement in Action! Appeasement in Action!
14,15,16 The Sudetenland contained 2 million German speakers They had NEVER been part of Germany (Austrian before 1919) Hitler demanded ‘self-government’ for the Sudeten Germans The Czechs were outraged… Chamberlain hesitated… Chamberlain flew to Germany twice & agreed Then Mussolini called a conference at Munich Appeasement in Action! Appeasement in Action! The Czechs were not invited! Britain, France, Italy & Germany agreed to give the Sudetenland to Germany Hitler then demanded that the Sudetenland be given to Germany

55 It means “Peace in our Time”
Sudetenland Continued – The ‘Peace of Paper’ At Munich, Chamberlain and Hitler signed a separate treaty. It promised that Britain and Germany would never go to war with each other again… 17 It’s just a piece of paper – the old man wanted my autograph so I gave it to him It means “Peace in our Time”

56 They chose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor
They chose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war! Churchill 18

57 H Stalin Panics – Czechoslovakia March 1939 No excuses!
Hitler promised at Munich that he did not want any more land In March 1939 Germany invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia No excuses! Czechoslovakia was an independent state, it had no German minority GB & France finally get the message! They guarantee to defend Poland if it is attacked Stalin Panics He thinks GB & France are letting Hitler move east to attack him! Decides to buy time to re-build shattered Red Army… 19,20,21


59 The Anti-Comintern Pact, 1936-7
Hitler found he had friends Mussolini also heavily involved in Spanish Civil War Japan despised communism & Soviet power in Asia 1936: (Ger) & (Japan) sign anti-Comintern pact 1937: (Italy) joined pact ‘Comintern meant Stalin’s ‘Communist International’ organization which promoted world-wide communism (Ger) (Italy) (Japan) united against Soviet Union New alliance called ‘Axis’ alliance. The name stuck 22,23,24

60 N – Nazi-Soviet Pact August 1939 So… They signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact
I can’t fight Germany yet – I’ve just purged my Red Army! And Britain & France won’t help ME! I can’t invade Poland if Britain & France attack me in the West AND the USSR attacks me from the East So… They signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact They promised not to attack each other In secret they promised to divide Poland between them 25,26,27 All clear for Hitler to invade...


62 G Invasion of Poland September 1939
1st September – Germany invades Poland Britain and France give 48 hrs to withdraw 3rd September – Britain and France declare war on Germany 28

63 Was Appeasement the right policy?
It was the right policy because Britain was not ready for war. It was the wrong policy because it encouraged Hitler.

64 Why did war break out in Europe in 1939?
It wasn’t Hitler’s fault. He was a gambler, not a planner .. It was all Hitler’s fault. He planned it step by step.


66 Mussolini

67 Italy Problems After WWI
460,000 Soldiers killed Heavy debt Dissatisfaction with TOV - Britain and France didn’t give Italy the land they promised in the Treaty of London Governments were coalitions that couldn’t make decisions

68 Problems Continue Value of lira declined Price of bread rose
Shortage of Coal Rising unemployment let to unrest in cities Peasants seize lands

69 Mussolini Gains Power Promises to solve Italy’s problems
Something for everyone: Nationalists – recreate the Roman Empire Landowners – protect private property Workers – full unemployment Blackshirts Mussolin’s Followers Used Force to gain power

70 March on Rome 1922 “Either the government will be given to us or we shall seize it by marching on Rome” 20,000 Blackshirts in a planned Coup d’etat King Victor Emmanuel fears Civil War - names Mussolini Prime Minister

71 “Il Duce” – The Leader Solved Unemployment Problem
Restored Patriotism and Nationalism Recaptured Italy’s Greatness “Made the Trains Run on Time Limited Individual Freedoms

72 Rise of Militarism in Japan

73 What Problems did Japan have after WWI?
Weak Constitutional Monarchy Conflicts with west over immigration policies and TOV/LON Population Explosion 35M to 60 M Need land for farming and living space Industrial Revolution = need for more raw materials Economic Problems due to Great Depression

74 What type of government evolved in Japan?
Civilian government had no control over military Militarism influenced all aspects of society Military gradually gains control of the government Hirohito figurehead Tojo as Military General and Leader of Japan

75 What were Japan’s Military and Nationalist Goals?
Solve Countries Problems through foreign expansion Pacific empire rich in raw materials and living space Begin in 1931 – Invasion of Manchuria 1931 Attack on Manchuria

76 What was the Rape of Nanking?

77 Formative What problems did Japan have after WWI?
Which group in Japan gained political power after WWI?

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