3TotalitarianismGovernment establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural) Form of DictatorshipFew Individual freedomsHighly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms)Strict controls and lawsMilitary state (secret police, army, military)Censorship (opposing literature and ideas)Propaganda (State controlled media – radio, newspapers, posters)One leader (dictator); charismaticTotal conformity of people to ideas and leaderTerror and Fear
4Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitude Who Would You Vote For?Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health.Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitudeContestant #3 I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy
5Who Did You Vote For?Contestant #3Contestant #2Contestant #1
6What was Hitler’s Early Life Like Born to Alois and Klara Hitler in Austria.Mother dies - Hitler blames her Jewish doctor for her death.Wanted to be an artist – not accepted into the Vienna Academy of ArtPaternal Grandfather - Jewish
8Hitlers failure in Art school in Vienna Couldn’t paint/draw faces. Is this a pretty good indicator that he had issues ?What group of people would you guess ran the art schools that wouldn’t admit Hitler ?
9How did WWI Influence Hitler? He served in German Army:wounded and received two Iron Crosses for bravery.First success in his life –Made himlove militaryBlamed Germany’s defeat on Jews, Communists, and “November Criminals” - signers of TOV
10Why did Hitler Join the German Workers Party? Army Sent Hitler to investigate in 1919.Gave a speech denouncing the TOV, Jews and CommunistsAsked to Join
11The “Stabbed-in-the-Back” Theory Disgruntled German WWI veterans
12What is the NAZI Party?German Workers Party changed to National Socialist German Workers Party - “NAZI” PartyFascist beliefsDrafted a platform of 25 pointsSwastika – ancient symbol meaning good luck
13What was the Beer Hall Putsch? October 30, 1923Failed NAZI Party Revolution- Hitler imprisonedWhile there he writes a book
21What did Hitler offer to the German people? Promises, PromisesNationalists - Restore Germany to GreatnessWealthy Industrialist – stop communismWorkers – end unemploymentBlamed Others for Germany’s ProblemsJewsNovember CriminalsWeimar RepublicGreat speakerStop reparation payments, give all germans food and jobs, make them proud to be German again, blamed Jews for Germany’s problems
22100,000 6.6 Billion 13 Abolish the Treaty of Versailles! German Army limited toGermany had to pay reparations to alliesAccept war guiltGermany lost % of its territories and coloniesThe Rhineland was demilitarisedAnschluss (union) with Austria was forbiddenGermans were forced to live in Czechoslavakia (the Sudentenland) and Poland (including Danzig)100,0006.6 Billion13Thought that the Treaty of Versailleswas unjust and humiliating
23How does Hitler become Chancellor? “Brownshirts”– Hitler’s private armyused fear tactics to eliminate oppositionUsed speeches and propaganda to gain supportNazi Party gains votes in Reichtag (German Legislature):1930 = 18% of vote1932 = 37% of voteHitler appointed Chancellor (Prime Minister) in 1933Hitler appted by President of Germany (Hindenburg), Chancellor similar to Prime Minister, to satisfy the Nazis in the Reichstag
24How did Hitler Gain Total Power? “Reichstag fire” Set by Nazi’s - blamed on communists -Hitler vowed to fight themEnded democracy in GermanyDeclared state of emergency and suspended individual rights and democratic protections (freedom of speech)
25What actions did Hitler take as Der Furher – The Leader? Ignored the TOVRebuilt Army & Opened Weapons FactoriesStopped reparations paymentsEconomy improvedNew Jobs - military sectorDecreased unemploymentEliminated political oppositionBegan planning for expansion of the Third Reich (Third Empire)
26What was the Jewish Problem? Hitler’s belief that Aryan German’s were the “Master Race” – blond hair, blue eyes, strong and disciplinedBlamed Germany’s problems on the JewishRacism and propaganda used to create distrust and hatred against Jews and non-Aryans.
27“The Eternal Jew” Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew.
28NAZI PROPAGANDA AGAINST THE DISABLED This frame from a filmstrip shows that the money needed to support a person with a hereditary disease can support an entire family of healthy Germans for the same amount of time.
31January 1933 – Adolph Hitler becomes Chancellor (Primeminister) of Germany A strong leader declared to the German people that he would restore German pride, rebuild their shattered country and have vengeance for the Treaty of Versailles.
32Hitler was lionized as“der Fuehrer”, and the 3rd Reich bornHis pol. popularity grew b/c of ongoing propaganda, eco. growth (autobahn), foreign policy “successes”…
33a massive state propaganda program was implemented, inc a massive state propaganda program was implemented, inc. Nuremberg RalliesGoebbels, as Min. of Truth and Enlightenment, created the “Big Lie”Unacceptable ideas were stamped out – the “Burning of the Books”(Censorship)D-1
34What actions did Hitler take to solve the “Jewish Problem” 1935 Nuremburg LawsStipped Jews of CitizenshipCan’t Hold Public OfficeBarred From SchoolsBoycott Jewish BusinessesBanned non-Jews from marriage to Jews1938 KristallnachtJews attacked on streetsJewish businesses vandalizedBurned SynagoguesMany Jews shot or sent to prison campsD-2,3
36Formative What did the people want? What did Hitler Offer? 1. Name and explain three ways Hitler gained control of GermanyName 3 problems Germany had after WWI
37NazismI am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.What is Nazism?extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarianbased on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Partybelief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race”belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in EuropeViolent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them
381938 Time Man of the Year What do you think America thought of him ?
39From foot-soldier to Führer Hitler’s rise from corporal to Fuhrer was remarkableSixteen years ( ) separate these two picturesHitler’s rise is unprecedented in historyFrom defeated and demoralized corporal to one of the most powerful men on the planetKey Question: How far was Hitler responsible for the outbreak of the Second World War?5
40LebensraumGermany's future, Hitler declared, entirely depended on meeting its need for more Lebensraum -living space; the German nation had a right to a larger share of land. The question was where the space could be acquired "at the lowest cost." The answer lay not in overseas colonies but in Europe itself, "in immediate proximity to the Reich."Hitler’s ‘Greater Germany’ would have a population of over 85 millionGermany’s land would be insufficent to feed this many peopleHitler intended to expand Eastwards towards Poland and Russia. Russians and Poles were Slavs – Hitler believed them to be inferior and so Germany was entitled to take their land.6
41Hitler’s Actions: Timeline DATEACTION1933Took (G) out of League of NationsBegan rearming (G)1934Tried to take over Austria but Mussolini prevented him1935Held massive rearmament rally in (G)1936Reintroduced conscriptionSent troops into RhinelandMade anti-Communist alliance w/ Japan1937Tried out (G)’s new weapons in the Spanish Civil WarMade anti-Communist alliance w/ Italy1938Took over AustriaTook over the Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia1939Invaded the rest of CzechoslovakiaInvaded PolandWAR!
42Rearmament 1933: 1934: 1935: 1000s of unemployed drafted into army 81933:1000s of unemployed drafted into armyReduced unemployment & built militaryClaimed only reason to rearm was because other nations had not disarmedWithdrew from L of N (Like Japan earlier)1934:L of N disarmament conference failsL of N members not willing to disarmMembers used military to reduce unemployment, not willing to change1935:Massive ‘Proclamation of Freedom to Rearm Rally’
43Rearmament 1936: Rearmament popular w/ Germans H reintroduces conscriptionRearmament popular w/ GermansNazi support increased dramaticallyPride restored to nationHumiliation of T of V partially erasedBritain helped dismantle Versailles1935: signed agreement allowing (G) a navy 35% as large of (E) navy (violation!!!)(E) believed restrictions on (G) in T of V too strict, (G) not able to defend itself(E) feared Central Europe was too weak to face growing Soviet power(France) really hacked off, but what could they do?
44Proportion of German spending that went to armaments, 1935-1940 10
45German armed forces in 1932 and 1939 (950,000)(8,250)(95)(30)(100,000)(36)193219391932193919321939WarshipsAircraftSoldiersFill out the first row of your ‘Versailles Chart’What factors allowed Hitler to get away with rearming Germany?
46Reasons and Reactions No Action taken He needed larger armies to 13He needed larger armies toprotect Germany, and largearmies also provided jobs andsolved unemploymentproblems caused byThe Great Depression.Britain sympathized withGermany, believing that theTreaty of Versailleshad been too unfairon them. They also believed that astrong Germany would act asa barrier against Communism.The French were angrywith Britain, but there waslittle they could do.
47CRASHING IVIL WAR IN SPAIN E-OCCUPATION OF THE RHINELAND 14E-OCCUPATION OF THE RHINELANDNSCHLUSS WITH AUSTRIAUDENTENLAND CRISISCRASHINGITLER TAKES OVER REST OF CZECHOSLAVAKIATALY AND GERMANY FORM PACTAZI-SOVIET PACTERMANY INVADE POLAND
48C The Spanish Civil War 1936: Civil War! 1937: Guernica! Republican government & Pro-government Communist forces fought right-wing (Fascist) rebels General Francisco FrancoHitler saw war as opportunity to fight communism & give troops combat experience1937: Guernica!(G) ‘Condor Legion’ (Luftwaffe) purposely targeted civilians to demoralize enemyLeague of Nations looked on w/o interfering
49Remilitarization of the Rhineland Rhineland a key industrial regionCoal, steel, iron center (needed for rearmament)March 1936: Hitler’s first major riskOrdered troops moved into RhinelandDirect violation of T of VDirect violation of Locarno Treaties (1925)If Allies responded H would be humiliatedProbable loss of power / military coupWhy did Hitler do it?(France) & (Russia) just signed mutual defense pactHitler claimed (G) was under threat from (Fra) & (Rus)H knew (England) felt T of V too harsh(England) would probably not interveneE-3,4,5
50Reasons and Reactions Hitler got away with it! 6 France was going through an internalpolitical crisis at the time and therewas no political leadership toconcentrate against Nazi Germany.Britain generally supported the viewthat Nazi Germany was onlygoing into her own "backyard" andthat this section of Versailles did notneed to be enforced in the mid-1930’s.It was believed that Germany wasbehaving in a reasonable andunderstandable manner.France and Russia had madea treaty to protect each other fromGermany. Hitler said that heshould be allowed to placetroops on his own frontier.Hitler got away with it!
51Anschluss(Reuniting former German territory) with Austria, 1938 Hitler’s homeland, AustriaMainly ethnic GermansMany supported anschlussHitler failed in 1934 because Mussolini opposedHitler succeeded in 1938 (Mussolini now ally)Strong Nazi Party in AustriaH had (A) Nazis riot & protest, demanding anschlussH pressured (A) Chancellor Schuschnigg to agree to anschlussSchuschnigg asked for (Eng) & (Fra) help, got no supportMarch 1938: Schuschnigg ordered plebiscite but Hitler, fearing loss, sent troops inUnder watchful eye of (G) army anschluss plebiscite was 99.75% in favor (har har har)7-13(E) Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain believed (A) & (G) should be united
53Reasons and Reactions There were lots of German people France and Britain refused to help Austria.The British prime Minister NevilleChamberlain felt the Treaty of Versailleswas wrong and that Austriaand Germany should be united. Thiswas justified by the fact that theywere both German speaking nations.Hitler was now even more convinced thatBritain and France would notStand in his way in the future.There were lots of German peopleliving in Austria and Hitler said thepeople of Austria wanted to unitewith Germany.Austria was economically weakand Hitler promised to solvethis problem.
54S Sudentenland 1938 Appeasement in Action! Appeasement in Action! 14,15,16The Sudetenland contained 2 million German speakersThey had NEVER been part of Germany (Austrian before 1919)Hitler demanded ‘self-government’ for the Sudeten GermansThe Czechs were outraged…Chamberlain hesitated…Chamberlain flew to Germany twice & agreedThen Mussolini called a conference at MunichAppeasement in Action!Appeasement in Action!The Czechs were not invited!Britain, France, Italy & Germany agreed to give the Sudetenland to GermanyHitler then demanded that the Sudetenland be given to Germany
55It means “Peace in our Time” Sudetenland Continued – The ‘Peace of Paper’At Munich, Chamberlain and Hitler signed a separate treaty. It promised that Britain and Germany would never go to war with each other again…17It’s just a piece of paper – the old man wanted my autograph so I gave it to himIt means “Peace in our Time”
56They chose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor They chose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war!Churchill18
57H Stalin Panics – Czechoslovakia March 1939 No excuses! Hitler promised at Munich that he did not want any more landIn March 1939 Germany invaded the rest of CzechoslovakiaNo excuses!Czechoslovakia was an independent state, it had no German minorityGB & France finally get the message!They guarantee to defend Poland if it is attackedStalin PanicsHe thinks GB & France are letting Hitler move east to attack him!Decides to buy time to re-build shattered Red Army…19,20,21
59The Anti-Comintern Pact, 1936-7 Hitler found he had friendsMussolini also heavily involved in Spanish Civil WarJapan despised communism & Soviet power in Asia1936: (Ger) & (Japan) sign anti-Comintern pact1937: (Italy) joined pact‘Comintern meant Stalin’s ‘Communist International’ organization which promoted world-wide communism(Ger) (Italy) (Japan) united against Soviet UnionNew alliance called ‘Axis’ alliance. The name stuck22,23,24
60N – Nazi-Soviet Pact August 1939 So… They signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact I can’t fight Germany yet – I’ve just purged my Red Army! And Britain & France won’t help ME!I can’t invade Poland if Britain & France attack me in the West AND the USSR attacks me from the EastSo…They signed the Nazi-Soviet PactThey promised not to attack each otherIn secret they promised to divide Poland between them25,26,27All clear for Hitler to invade...
62G Invasion of Poland September 1939 1st September – Germany invades PolandBritain and France give 48 hrs to withdraw3rd September – Britain and France declare war on Germany28
63Was Appeasement the right policy? It was the right policy because Britain was not ready for war.It was the wrong policy because it encouraged Hitler.
64Why did war break out in Europe in 1939? It wasn’t Hitler’s fault. He was a gambler, not a planner ..It was all Hitler’s fault. He planned it step by step.
65CRASHING IVIL WAR IN SPAIN E-OCCUPATION OF THE RHINELAND NSCHLUSS WITH AUSTRIAUDENTENLAND CRISISCRASHINGITLER TAKES OVER REST OF CZECHOSLAVAKIATALY AND GERMANY FORM PACTAZI-SOVIET PACTERMANY INVADE POLAND
67Italy Problems After WWI 460,000 Soldiers killedHeavy debtDissatisfaction with TOV - Britain and France didn’t give Italy the land they promised in the Treaty of LondonGovernments were coalitions that couldn’t make decisions
68Problems Continue Value of lira declined Price of bread rose Shortage of CoalRising unemployment let to unrest in citiesPeasants seize lands
69Mussolini Gains Power Promises to solve Italy’s problems Something for everyone:Nationalists – recreate the Roman EmpireLandowners – protect private propertyWorkers – full unemploymentBlackshirtsMussolin’s FollowersUsed Force to gain power
70March on Rome 1922“Either the government will be given to us or we shall seize it by marching on Rome”20,000 Blackshirts in a planned Coup d’etatKing Victor Emmanuel fears Civil War - names Mussolini Prime Minister
71“Il Duce” – The Leader Solved Unemployment Problem Restored Patriotism and NationalismRecaptured Italy’s Greatness“Made the Trains Run on TimeLimited Individual Freedoms
73What Problems did Japan have after WWI? Weak Constitutional MonarchyConflicts with west over immigration policies and TOV/LONPopulation Explosion35M to 60 MNeed land for farming and living spaceIndustrial Revolution = need for more raw materialsEconomic Problems due to Great Depression
74What type of government evolved in Japan? Civilian government had no control over militaryMilitarism influenced all aspects of societyMilitary gradually gains control of the governmentHirohito figureheadTojo as Military General and Leader of Japan
75What were Japan’s Military and Nationalist Goals? Solve Countries Problems through foreign expansionPacific empire rich in raw materials and living spaceBegin in 1931 – Invasion of Manchuria1931 Attack on Manchuria