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Hitler’s Rise to Power Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural) Form of.

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Presentation on theme: "Hitler’s Rise to Power Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural) Form of."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Hitler’s Rise to Power

4 Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural) Form of Dictatorship Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural) Form of Dictatorship Few Individual freedoms Few Individual freedoms Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms) Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms) Strict controls and laws Strict controls and laws Military state (secret police, army, military) Military state (secret police, army, military) Censorship (opposing literature and ideas) Censorship (opposing literature and ideas) Propaganda (State controlled media – radio, newspapers, posters) Propaganda (State controlled media – radio, newspapers, posters) One leader (dictator); charismatic One leader (dictator); charismatic Total conformity of people to ideas and leader Total conformity of people to ideas and leader Terror and Fear Terror and Fear

5 Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, have self-interested policies and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a defiant tongue or attitude Contestant #3 I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy

6 Contestant #3 Contestant #2 Contestant #1

7 What was Hitler’s Early Life Like Born to Alois and Klara Hitler in Austria. Born to Alois and Klara Hitler in Austria. Mother dies - Hitler blames her Jewish doctor for her death. Mother dies - Hitler blames her Jewish doctor for her death. Wanted to be an artist – not accepted into the Vienna Academy of Art Wanted to be an artist – not accepted into the Vienna Academy of Art Paternal Grandfather - Jewish Paternal Grandfather - Jewish

8 Hitler’s Paintings

9 Hitlers failure in Art school in Vienna Couldn’t paint/draw faces. Is this a pretty good indicator that he had issues ? Couldn’t paint/draw faces. Is this a pretty good indicator that he had issues ? What group of people would you guess ran the art schools that wouldn’t admit Hitler ? What group of people would you guess ran the art schools that wouldn’t admit Hitler ?

10 How did WWI Influence Hitler? He served in German Army: He served in German Army: wounded and received two Iron Crosses for bravery. wounded and received two Iron Crosses for bravery. First success in his life –Made him First success in his life –Made him love military love military Blamed Germany’s defeat on Jews, Communists, and “November Criminals” - signers of TOV Blamed Germany’s defeat on Jews, Communists, and “November Criminals” - signers of TOV

11 Why did Hitler Join the German Workers Party? Army Sent Hitler to investigate in Army Sent Hitler to investigate in Gave a speech denouncing the TOV, Jews and Communists Gave a speech denouncing the TOV, Jews and Communists Asked to Join Asked to Join

12 The “Stabbed-in-the-Back” Theory Disgruntled German WWI veterans

13 What is the NAZI Party? German Workers Party changed to National Socialist German Workers Party - “NAZI” Party German Workers Party changed to National Socialist German Workers Party - “NAZI” Party Fascist beliefs Fascist beliefs Drafted a platform of 25 points Drafted a platform of 25 points Swastika – ancient symbol meaning good luck Swastika – ancient symbol meaning good luck

14 What was the Beer Hall Putsch? October 30, 1923 October 30, 1923 Failed NAZI Party Revolution- Hitler imprisoned Failed NAZI Party Revolution- Hitler imprisoned While there he writes a book While there he writes a book

15 Hitler in Landesberg Prison

16 What is Mein Kampf? “Mein Kampf” = “My Struggle” “Mein Kampf” = “My Struggle” Blueprint for Germany’s future Blueprint for Germany’s future 1. Racism - hatred for Jews Scapegoat for 2. Germanys problems 2. Lebensraum (living space) expansion of Germany’s border 3. World Domination

17 What Problems did Germany’s government have after WWI? Weimar Republic – democracy established after WWI Weimar Republic – democracy established after WWI Faced Political opposition from Faced Political opposition from communist communist fascists fascists

18 What economic problems did the Weimar Republic have after WWI? Reparations – repayments for war damages to AlliesReparations – repayments for war damages to AlliesCaused: High UnemploymentHigh Unemployment StarvationStarvation Desperation….Desperation….

19 What is Hyperinflation? US German US German Jan 1918 $1 = $5.21 Jan 1918 $1 = $5.21 Jan 1922$1 = $ Jan 1922$1 = $ Jan 1923$1 = $17, 972 Jan 1923$1 = $17, 972 Dec 1923$1 = $4.2 T Dec 1923$1 = $4.2 T Hyperinflation - soaring inflation (increase in prices due to too much money and too few goods)

20 Ripe for change

21 The German Mark

22 What did Hitler offer to the German people? Promises, PromisesPromises, Promises Nationalists - Restore Germany to Greatness Nationalists - Restore Germany to Greatness Wealthy Industrialist – stop communism Wealthy Industrialist – stop communism Workers – end unemployment Workers – end unemployment Blamed Others for Germany’s ProblemsBlamed Others for Germany’s Problems Jews Jews November Criminals November Criminals Weimar Republic Weimar Republic Great speakerGreat speaker

23 German Army limited to German Army limited to Germany had to pay reparations to allies Germany had to pay reparations to allies Accept war guilt Accept war guilt Germany lost % of its territories and colonies Germany lost % of its territories and colonies The Rhineland was demilitarised The Rhineland was demilitarised Anschluss (union) with Austria was forbidden Anschluss (union) with Austria was forbidden Germans were forced to live in Czechoslavakia (the Sudentenland) and Poland (including Danzig) Germans were forced to live in Czechoslavakia (the Sudentenland) and Poland (including Danzig) Abolish the Treaty of Versailles! Thought that the Treaty of Versailles was unjust and humiliating

24 How does Hitler become Chancellor? “Brownshirts”– Hitler’s private army “Brownshirts”– Hitler’s private army used fear tactics to eliminate opposition used fear tactics to eliminate opposition Used speeches and propaganda to gain support Used speeches and propaganda to gain support Nazi Party gains votes in Reichtag (German Legislature): Nazi Party gains votes in Reichtag (German Legislature): 1930 = 18% of vote 1930 = 18% of vote 1932 = 37% of vote 1932 = 37% of vote Hitler appointed Chancellor (Prime Minister) in 1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor (Prime Minister) in 1933

25 How did Hitler Gain Total Power? “Reichstag fire” Set by Nazi’s - blamed on communists -Hitler vowed to fight them “Reichstag fire” Set by Nazi’s - blamed on communists -Hitler vowed to fight them Ended democracy in Germany Ended democracy in Germany

26 What actions did Hitler take as Der Furher – The Leader? Ignored the TOV Ignored the TOV Rebuilt Army & Opened Weapons Factories Rebuilt Army & Opened Weapons Factories Stopped reparations payments Stopped reparations payments Economy improved Economy improved New Jobs - military sector New Jobs - military sector Decreased unemployment Decreased unemployment Eliminated political opposition Eliminated political opposition Began planning for expansion of the Third Reich (Third Empire) Began planning for expansion of the Third Reich (Third Empire)

27 What was the Jewish Problem? Hitler’s belief that Aryan German’s were the “Master Race” – blond hair, blue eyes, strong and disciplined Hitler’s belief that Aryan German’s were the “Master Race” – blond hair, blue eyes, strong and disciplined Blamed Germany’s problems on the Jewish Blamed Germany’s problems on the Jewish Racism and propaganda used to create distrust and hatred against Jews and non-Aryans. Racism and propaganda used to create distrust and hatred against Jews and non-Aryans.

28 This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew. “The Eternal Jew” Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.

29 NAZI PROPAGANDA AGAINST THE DISABLED This frame from a filmstrip shows that the money needed to support a person with a hereditary disease can support an entire family of healthy Germans for the same amount of time.

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31 Worlds Greatest Pep Rallies

32 January 1933 – Adolph Hitler becomes Chancellor (Primeminister) of Germany A strong leader declared to the German people that he would restore German pride, rebuild their shattered country and have vengeance for the Treaty of Versailles.

33 Hitler was lionized as Hitler was lionized as “der Fuehrer”, and the 3rd Reich born His pol. popularity grew b/c of ongoing propaganda, eco. growth (autobahn), foreign policy “successes”… His pol. popularity grew b/c of ongoing propaganda, eco. growth (autobahn), foreign policy “successes”…

34 a massive state propaganda program was implemented, inc. Nuremberg Rallies a massive state propaganda program was implemented, inc. Nuremberg Rallies Goebbels, as Min. of Truth and Enlightenment, created the “Big Lie” Goebbels, as Min. of Truth and Enlightenment, created the “Big Lie” Unacceptable ideas were stamped out – the “Burning of the Books”(Censorship) Unacceptable ideas were stamped out – the “Burning of the Books”(Censorship) D-1

35 What actions did Hitler take to solve the “Jewish Problem” 1935 Nuremburg Laws 1935 Nuremburg Laws Stipped Jews of Citizenship Stipped Jews of Citizenship Can’t Hold Public Office Can’t Hold Public Office Barred From Schools Barred From Schools Boycott Jewish Businesses Boycott Jewish Businesses Banned non-Jews from marriage to Jews Banned non-Jews from marriage to Jews 1938 Kristallnacht 1938 Kristallnacht Jews attacked on streets Jews attacked on streets Jewish businesses vandalized Jewish businesses vandalized Burned Synagogues Burned Synagogues Many Jews shot or sent to prison camps Many Jews shot or sent to prison camps D-2,3

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37 Formative What did the people want? What did Hitler Offer? 1. 2.Name and explain three ways Hitler gained control of Germany 3.Name 3 problems Germany had after WWI

38 I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to What is Nazism? extremely fascist, nationalistic and totalitarian based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race” belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them

39 1938 Time Man of the Year What do you think America thought of him ? D-4

40 From foot-soldier to Führer Hitler’s rise from corporal to Fuhrer was remarkable Hitler’s rise from corporal to Fuhrer was remarkable Sixteen years ( ) separate these two pictures Hitler’s rise is unprecedented in history From defeated and demoralized corporal to one of the most powerful men on the planet Key Question: How far was Hitler responsible for the outbreak of the Second World War? 5

41 Lebensraum Germany's future, Hitler declared, entirely depended on meeting its need for more Lebensraum -living space; the German nation had a right to a larger share of land. The question was where the space could be acquired "at the lowest cost." The answer lay not in overseas colonies but in Europe itself, "in immediate proximity to the Reich." Germany's future, Hitler declared, entirely depended on meeting its need for more Lebensraum -living space; the German nation had a right to a larger share of land. The question was where the space could be acquired "at the lowest cost." The answer lay not in overseas colonies but in Europe itself, "in immediate proximity to the Reich."Lebensraum Hitler’s ‘Greater Germany’ would have a population of over 85 million Hitler’s ‘Greater Germany’ would have a population of over 85 million Germany’s land would be insufficent to feed this many people Germany’s land would be insufficent to feed this many people Hitler intended to expand Eastwards towards Poland and Russia. Russians and Poles were Slavs – Hitler believed them to be inferior and so Germany was entitled to take their land. Hitler intended to expand Eastwards towards Poland and Russia. Russians and Poles were Slavs – Hitler believed them to be inferior and so Germany was entitled to take their land. 6

42 Hitler’s Actions: Timeline DATEACTION 1933Took (G) out of League of Nations Began rearming (G) 1934Tried to take over Austria but Mussolini prevented him 1935Held massive rearmament rally in (G) 1936Reintroduced conscription Sent troops into Rhineland Made anti-Communist alliance w/ Japan 1937Tried out (G)’s new weapons in the Spanish Civil War Made anti-Communist alliance w/ Italy 1938Took over Austria Took over the Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia 1939Invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia Invaded Poland WAR!

43 Rearmament 1933: –1000s of unemployed drafted into army –Reduced unemployment & built military –Claimed only reason to rearm was because other nations had not disarmed –Withdrew from L of N (Like Japan earlier) 1934: –L of N disarmament conference fails –L of N members not willing to disarm –Members used military to reduce unemployment, not willing to change 1935: –Massive ‘Proclamation of Freedom to Rearm Rally’ 8

44 Rearmament 1936: –H reintroduces conscription Rearmament popular w/ Germans –Nazi support increased dramatically –Pride restored to nation –Humiliation of T of V partially erased Britain helped dismantle Versailles –1935: signed agreement allowing (G) a navy 35% as large of (E) navy (violation!!!) –(E) believed restrictions on (G) in T of V too strict, (G) not able to defend itself –(E) feared Central Europe was too weak to face growing Soviet power –(France) really hacked off, but what could they do? 9

45 Proportion of German spending that went to armaments,

46 German armed forces in 1932 and WarshipsAircraftSoldiers (30) (95) (36) (8,250) (100,000 ) (950,000 ) 1)Fill out the first row of your ‘Versailles Chart’ 2)What factors allowed Hitler to get away with rearming Germany?

47 He needed larger armies to protect Germany, and large armies also provided jobs and solved unemployment problems caused by The Great Depression. Reasons and Reactions Britain sympathized with Germany, believing that the Treaty of Versailles had been too unfair on them. They also believed that a strong Germany would act as a barrier against Communism. The French were angry with Britain, but there was little they could do. 13

48 IVIL WAR IN SPAIN NSCHLUSS WITH AUSTRIA UDENTENLAND CRISIS ITLER TAKES OVER REST OF CZECHOSLAVAKIA TALY AND GERMANY FORM PACT AZI-SOVIET PACT ERMANY INVADE POLAND E-OCCUPATION OF THE RHINELAND 14

49 The Spanish Civil War 1936: Civil War! –Republican government & Pro-government Communist forces fought right-wing (Fascist) rebels General Francisco Franco –Hitler saw war as opportunity to fight communism & give troops combat experience 1937: Guernica! –(G) ‘Condor Legion’ (Luftwaffe) purposely targeted civilians to demoralize enemy –League of Nations looked on w/o interfering C E-1,2

50 Remilitarization of the Rhineland Rhineland a key industrial region –Coal, steel, iron center (needed for rearmament) March 1936: Hitler’s first major risk –Ordered troops moved into Rhineland –Direct violation of T of V –Direct violation of Locarno Treaties (1925) If Allies responded H would be humiliated –Probable loss of power / military coup Why did Hitler do it? –(France) & (Russia) just signed mutual defense pact –Hitler claimed (G) was under threat from (Fra) & (Rus) –H knew (England) felt T of V too harsh –(England) would probably not intervene R E-3,4,5

51 Reasons and Reactions France and Russia had made a treaty to protect each other from Germany. Hitler said that he should be allowed to place troops on his own frontier. France was going through an internal political crisis at the time and there was no political leadership to concentrate against Nazi Germany. Britain generally supported the view that Nazi Germany was only going into her own "backyard" and that this section of Versailles did not need to be enforced in the mid-1930’s. It was believed that Germany was behaving in a reasonable and understandable manner. 6

52 Anschluss(Reuniting former German territory) with Austria, 1938 Hitler’s homeland, Austria –Mainly ethnic Germans –Many supported anschluss –Hitler failed in 1934 because Mussolini opposed –Hitler succeeded in 1938 (Mussolini now ally) Strong Nazi Party in Austria –H had (A) Nazis riot & protest, demanding anschluss –H pressured (A) Chancellor Schuschnigg to agree to anschluss –Schuschnigg asked for (Eng) & (Fra) help, got no support –March 1938: Schuschnigg ordered plebiscite but Hitler, fearing loss, sent troops in –Under watchful eye of (G) army anschluss plebiscite was 99.75% in favor (har har har) (E) Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain believed (A) & (G) should be united A 7-13

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54 Reasons and Reactions There were lots of German people living in Austria and Hitler said the people of Austria wanted to unite with Germany. Austria was economically weak and Hitler promised to solve this problem. France and Britain refused to help Austria. The British prime Minister Neville Chamberlain felt the Treaty of Versailles was wrong and that Austria and Germany should be united. This was justified by the fact that they were both German speaking nations. Hitler was now even more convinced that Britain and France would not Stand in his way in the future.

55 Sudentenland 1938 The Sudetenland contained 2 million German speakers They had NEVER been part of Germany (Austrian before 1919) Hitler demanded ‘self- government’ for the Sudeten Germans The Czechs were outraged… Chamberlain hesitated… Chamberlain flew to Germany twice & agreed Then Mussolini called a conference at Munich Hitler then demanded that the Sudetenland be given to Germany The Czechs were not invited! Britain, France, Italy & Germany agreed to give the Sudetenland to Germany S 14,15,16

56 Sudetenland Continued – The ‘Peace of Paper’ At Munich, Chamberlain and Hitler signed a separate treaty. It promised that Britain and Germany would never go to war with each other again… It means “Peace in our Time” It’s just a piece of paper – the old man wanted my autograph so I gave it to him 17

57 They chose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war! Churchill 18

58 – Czechoslovakia March 1939 Hitler promised at Munich that he did not want any more land In March 1939 Germany invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia was an independent state, it had no German minority They guarantee to defend Poland if it is attacked He thinks GB & France are letting Hitler move east to attack him! Decides to buy time to re-build shattered Red Army… Stalin Panics H 19,20,21

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60 The Anti-Comintern Pact, Hitler found he had friends –Mussolini also heavily involved in Spanish Civil War –Japan despised communism & Soviet power in Asia –1936: (Ger) & (Japan) sign anti-Comintern pact –1937: (Italy) joined pact –‘Comintern meant Stalin’s ‘Communist International’ organization which promoted world-wide communism –(Ger) (Italy) (Japan) united against Soviet Union –New alliance called ‘Axis’ alliance. The name stuck I 22,23,24

61 – Nazi-Soviet Pact August 1939 I can’t invade Poland if Britain & France attack me in the West AND the USSR attacks me from the East I can’t fight Germany yet – I’ve just purged my Red Army! And Britain & France won’t help ME! So… They signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact They promised not to attack each other In secret they promised to divide Poland between them N 25,26,27

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63 Invasion of Poland September st September – Germany invades Poland Britain and France give 48 hrs to withdraw 3 rd September – Britain and France declare war on Germany G 28

64 Was Appeasement the right policy? It was the wrong policy because it encouraged Hitler. It was the right policy because Britain was not ready for war.

65 Why did war break out in Europe in 1939? It was all Hitler’s fault. He planned it step by step. It wasn’t Hitler’s fault. He was a gambler, not a planner..

66 IVIL WAR IN SPAIN NSCHLUSS WITH AUSTRIA UDENTENLAND CRISIS ITLER TAKES OVER REST OF CZECHOSLAVAKIA TALY AND GERMANY FORM PACT AZI-SOVIET PACT ERMANY INVADE POLAND E-OCCUPATION OF THE RHINELAND

67 Mussolini

68 Italy Problems After WWI 460,000 Soldiers killed 460,000 Soldiers killed Heavy debt Heavy debt Dissatisfaction with TOV - Britain and France didn’t give Italy the land they promised in the Treaty of London Dissatisfaction with TOV - Britain and France didn’t give Italy the land they promised in the Treaty of London Governments were coalitions that couldn’t make decisions Governments were coalitions that couldn’t make decisions

69 Problems Continue Value of lira declined Value of lira declined Price of bread rose Price of bread rose Shortage of Coal Shortage of Coal Rising unemployment let to unrest in cities Rising unemployment let to unrest in cities Peasants seize lands Peasants seize lands

70 Mussolini Gains Power Promises to solve Italy’s problems Promises to solve Italy’s problems Something for everyone: Something for everyone: Nationalists – recreate the Roman Empire Nationalists – recreate the Roman Empire Landowners – protect private property Landowners – protect private property Workers – full unemployment Workers – full unemployment Blackshirts Blackshirts Mussolin’s Followers Mussolin’s Followers Used Force to gain power Used Force to gain power

71 March on Rome 1922 “Either the government will be given to us or we shall seize it by marching on Rome” “Either the government will be given to us or we shall seize it by marching on Rome” 20,000 Blackshirts in a planned Coup d’etat 20,000 Blackshirts in a planned Coup d’etat King Victor Emmanuel fears Civil War - names Mussolini Prime Minister King Victor Emmanuel fears Civil War - names Mussolini Prime Minister

72 “Il Duce” – The Leader Solved Unemployment Problem Solved Unemployment Problem Restored Patriotism and Nationalism Restored Patriotism and Nationalism Recaptured Italy’s Greatness Recaptured Italy’s Greatness “Made the Trains Run on Time “Made the Trains Run on Time Limited Individual Freedoms Limited Individual Freedoms

73 Rise of Militarism in Japan

74 What Problems did Japan have after WWI? Weak Constitutional Monarchy Weak Constitutional Monarchy Conflicts with west over immigration policies and TOV/LON Conflicts with west over immigration policies and TOV/LON Population Explosion Population Explosion 35M to 60 M 35M to 60 M Need land for farming and living space Need land for farming and living space Industrial Revolution = need for more raw materials Industrial Revolution = need for more raw materials Economic Problems due to Great Depression Economic Problems due to Great Depression

75 What type of government evolved in Japan? Civilian government had no control over military Civilian government had no control over military Militarism influenced all aspects of society Militarism influenced all aspects of society Military gradually gains control of the government Military gradually gains control of the government Hirohito figurehead Hirohito figurehead Tojo as Military General and Leader of Japan Tojo as Military General and Leader of Japan

76 What were Japan’s Military and Nationalist Goals? Solve Countries Problems through foreign expansion Solve Countries Problems through foreign expansion Pacific empire rich in raw materials and living space Pacific empire rich in raw materials and living space Begin in 1931 – Invasion of Manchuria Begin in 1931 – Invasion of Manchuria 1931 Attack on Manchuria

77 What was the Rape of Nanking?

78 Formative What problems did Japan have after WWI? What problems did Japan have after WWI? Which group in Japan gained political power after WWI? Which group in Japan gained political power after WWI?


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