Presentation on theme: "and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s"— Presentation transcript:
1 and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s Rise of New Leadersand Ideas in Europe during the 1930s
2 Politics Between the Wars Many new democracies started up in the world, ,but there was also a strong push for communist uprisings in Germany, France and the United StatesBy the end of the 1920s. Most countries were overtaken by a worldwide depression.This table illustrates the exchange rates of 1US$ value in German marks.
3 Politics Between the Wars The many democratic nations set up after WWI soon found themselves battling off other political ideologies such as communism or socialism.Fear of communism grew as nations saw Communists not as revolutionaries, but as an attempt by the Soviet Union to take over their nation.A response to communism and a solution to the problems of post WW I Europe was a new ideology known as fascism
4 Factors leading to Fascist type government * Economic crisis * Fear of communism* Desire for leadership/order * Fear of social unrest/chaosFascism allows one charismatic leader to take power and restore the nation’s strength and pride by whatever means necessary.Promotes the idea that everyone must work to make nation strong.
6 Great Depression during 1930s Total Control of State by a Dictator Black Tuesday stock market crashesTreaty of VersaillesGreat Depression during 1930sTotalitarianismIncreasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control -For example: Communism, Nazism, FascismTotal Control of State by a Dictator
7 Describe its characteristics… TotalitarianismWhat is it?Describe its characteristics…
8 TotalitarianismGovernment establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural)Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms)Strict controls and lawsMilitary state (secret police, army, military)Censorship (opposing literature and ideas)Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters)One leader (dictator); charismaticTotal conformity of people to ideas and leaderTerror and Fear
9 Totalitarianism*These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behavior
10 CommunismI am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union fromWhat is Communism?LEFT WINGbased on theory by Karl Marxrevolutionary idea of a political, economic and social system that creates a “classless society”state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership)Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism
11 FascismI am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943.What is Fascism?RIGHT WINGintense nationalism and elitism- visibly patriotictotalitarian control – strong militaryinterests of the state more important than individual rightsmaintain class system and private ownershipPeople serve the stateInteresting Fact: Fascism name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax
12 NazismI am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.What is Nazism?extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarianbased on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Partybelief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race”belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in EuropeViolent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them
14 Nazi Military State GESTAPO: the Secret State Police SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of the SASA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties
15 Nazi Military StateLebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into eastWehrmacht: German armyHJ (Hitler Jugend): Hitler Youth
20 “The Eternal Jew” Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community.This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew.