Presentation on theme: "1933 - 1938. You will learn…….. How Hitler strengthened his power in 1933-1934How Hitler strengthened his power in 1933-1934 How he influenced the lives."— Presentation transcript:
You will learn…….. How Hitler strengthened his power in How Hitler strengthened his power in How he influenced the lives of Germans between 1933 and 1939How he influenced the lives of Germans between 1933 and 1939 How and why the Jewish people in Germany suffered under his ruleHow and why the Jewish people in Germany suffered under his rule “Totalitarian Dictatorship”“Totalitarian Dictatorship”
Introduction A “thousand year Reich” But Hitler’s Third Reich only lasted 12 years Ended with Germany’s defeat and Hitler’s suicide amidst the ruins of Berlin This chapter looks at what happened inside Germany in the years before WWII broke out
The Reichstag Fire Hitler : Chancellor in Jan 1933 Supported by President, German army and many politicians Hoped for a strong govt and a solution to Germany’s economic problems Then they will get rid of Hitler
The Reichstag Fire Hitler, however, was determined to stay Went about making sure he had complete power How?
The Reichstag Fire First step : Called for new elections for the Reichstag (parliament) Although the Nazi Party was the single largest party in the Reichstag, Hitler wanted an overall majority
The Reichstag Fire Stopped newspapers from criticizing the Nazis Dismissed officials who opposed him Use his unformed followers to break up meetings of other parties and beat up his opponents (SA & SS) Extreme Nazi violence throughout the election campaign, especially against the communists
The Reichstag Fire A week before the elections, the Reichstag building in Berlin went up in flames Hitler blamed the fire on the communists Used this as an excuse to issue an emergency law
The Reichstag Fire This law removed freedoms promised by the Weimar Republic Right to a fair trial Free press The fire was almost certainly started by the Nazis though the Germans did not know this then
The Reichstag Fire Results of election Nazis obtained 43% With the help of the Nationalist party, managed to scrap through an overall majority of 51%
The Enabling Act, 1933 Hitler now schemed to have the Reichstag give up its powers and rule as a dictator To do this, the Reichstag had to pass an “Enabling Act” which required 2/3 majority Hitler achieved this. How do you think he did it?
The Enabling Act, WAYS 1.Banned communist deputies from coming to the Reichstag so they could not use their votes 2.Persuaded the Centre Party to vote for the Act by giving vague promises 3.Using the votes of his allies, the Nationalist Party
The End of Democracy in Germany Because of the Enabling Act, democracy died in Germany Other political parties were banned Trade Unions taken over by the Nazis Press, radio and cinema placed under total Nazi control
The End of Democracy in Germany Opponents arrested, imprisoned or killed Concentration camps and forced labour camps SS and Gestapo struck terror into many Nazi opponents Many fled the country eg Albert Einstein and the writer Thomas Mann
The Night of the Long Knives 1934 Hitler wanted to have complete power within his own partyHitler wanted to have complete power within his own party Ernst Rohm, leader of the SA, was disappointedErnst Rohm, leader of the SA, was disappointed –Not given a more important role in the new government –Started to create trouble for Hitler Hitler decide to get rid of him and many of his followersHitler decide to get rid of him and many of his followers How would you do that if you were Hitler?How would you do that if you were Hitler?
The Night of the Long Knives 1934 Hitler called the leaders of the SA to a special conferenceHitler called the leaders of the SA to a special conference During the night, he had them dragged out of bed and shotDuring the night, he had them dragged out of bed and shot On the same night, many other opponents all over Germany suffered the same fateOn the same night, many other opponents all over Germany suffered the same fate No public protests – demonstrated Hitler’s power and the people’s fearNo public protests – demonstrated Hitler’s power and the people’s fear This became known as the Night of the Long KnivesThis became known as the Night of the Long Knives
The Night of the Long Knives months later, President Hindenberg died2 months later, President Hindenberg died Hitler combined the jobs of Chancellor and PresidentHitler combined the jobs of Chancellor and President He also became commander in chief of the armed forcesHe also became commander in chief of the armed forces He was now the supreme dictator of GermanyHe was now the supreme dictator of Germany