2 You will learn…….. How Hitler strengthened his power in 1933-1934 How he influenced the lives of Germans between 1933 and 1939How and why the Jewish people in Germany suffered under his rule“Totalitarian Dictatorship”
3 Introduction A “thousand year Reich” But Hitler’s Third Reich only lasted 12 yearsEnded with Germany’s defeat and Hitler’s suicide amidst the ruins of BerlinThis chapter looks at what happened inside Germany in the years before WWII broke out
4 The Reichstag Fire Hitler : Chancellor in Jan 1933 Supported by President, German army and many politiciansHoped for a strong govt and a solution to Germany’s economic problemsThen they will get rid of Hitler
5 The Reichstag Fire Hitler, however, was determined to stay Went about making sure he had complete powerHow?
6 The Reichstag FireFirst step : Called for new elections for the Reichstag (parliament)Although the Nazi Party was the single largest party in the Reichstag, Hitler wanted an overall majority
7 The Reichstag Fire Stopped newspapers from criticizing the Nazis Dismissed officials who opposed himUse his unformed followers to break up meetings of other parties and beat up his opponents (SA & SS)Extreme Nazi violence throughout the election campaign, especially against the communists
8 The Reichstag FireA week before the elections, the Reichstag building in Berlin went up in flamesHitler blamed the fire on the communistsUsed this as an excuse to issue an emergency law
9 The Reichstag FireThis law removed freedoms promised by the Weimar RepublicRight to a fair trialFree pressThe fire was almost certainly started by the Nazis though the Germans did not know this then
10 The Reichstag Fire Results of election Nazis obtained 43% With the help of the Nationalist party, managed to scrap through an overall majority of 51%
11 The Enabling Act, 1933Hitler now schemed to have the Reichstag give up its powers and rule as a dictatorTo do this, the Reichstag had to pass an “Enabling Act” which required 2/3 majorityHitler achieved this.How do you think he did it?
12 The Enabling Act, 19333 WAYSBanned communist deputies from coming to the Reichstag so they could not use their votesPersuaded the Centre Party to vote for the Act by giving vague promisesUsing the votes of his allies, the Nationalist Party
13 The End of Democracy in Germany Because of the Enabling Act, democracy died in GermanyOther political parties were bannedTrade Unions taken over by the NazisPress, radio and cinema placed under total Nazi control
14 The End of Democracy in Germany Opponents arrested, imprisoned or killedConcentration camps and forced labour campsSS and Gestapo struck terror into many Nazi opponentsMany fled the country eg Albert Einstein and the writer Thomas Mann
15 The Night of the Long Knives 1934 Hitler wanted to have complete power within his own partyErnst Rohm, leader of the SA, was disappointedNot given a more important role in the new governmentStarted to create trouble for HitlerHitler decide to get rid of him and many of his followersHow would you do that if you were Hitler?
16 The Night of the Long Knives 1934 Hitler called the leaders of the SA to a special conferenceDuring the night, he had them dragged out of bed and shotOn the same night, many other opponents all over Germany suffered the same fateNo public protests – demonstrated Hitler’s power and the people’s fearThis became known as the Night of the Long Knives
17 The Night of the Long Knives 1934 2 months later, President Hindenberg diedHitler combined the jobs of Chancellor and PresidentHe also became commander in chief of the armed forcesHe was now the supreme dictator of Germany