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THE RISE OF HITLER. The Rise of Hitler  Hitler was a brilliant orator who was very effective at public speaking  Public meetings were carefully staged.

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Presentation on theme: "THE RISE OF HITLER. The Rise of Hitler  Hitler was a brilliant orator who was very effective at public speaking  Public meetings were carefully staged."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE RISE OF HITLER

2 The Rise of Hitler  Hitler was a brilliant orator who was very effective at public speaking  Public meetings were carefully staged managed with floodlights, military music and marches by nazi supporters  To rouse the people into supporting Hitler without the faintest idea of what they were agreeing to

3 The Rise of Hitler  Hitler managed to get the support of some wealthy industrialists  Thought that a Nazi Germany would be strong and thus good for the economy  Worried also about the growing support for communism  Thought that Hitler would be the best defence against communism

4 The Rise of Hitler  Eventually Hitler came to power  Other parties could not resolve their differences to unite against him  The President, Hindenburg, had no choice but to appoint Hitler as Chancellor in Jan 1933  Beginning of the end for Weimar Germany and the start of the “Third Reich” (the third German empire)

5 The Rise of Hitler First Reich  The First Reich refers to the rule of the Holy Roman Empires ( ) Second Reich  The Second Reich refers to the rule of the German Emperors (1871 – 1918) Third Reich  The Third Reich refers to the rule of Adolf Hitler (1933 – 1945)

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7 You will learn…….. How Hitler established political control (power)How Hitler established political control (power) How Hitler established social controlHow Hitler established social control How Hitler established economic controlHow Hitler established economic control

8 POLITICAL CONTROL  A “thousand year Reich”  But Hitler’s Third Reich only lasted 12 years  Ended with Germany’s defeat and Hitler’s suicide amidst the ruins of Berlin  This lesson looks at what happened inside Germany in the years before WWII broke out

9 Why Hitler was supported?  Hitler : Chancellor in Jan 1933  Supported by President, German army and many politicians  Hoped for a strong govt and a solution to Germany’s economic problems  Then they will get rid of Hitler

10 How Hitler consolidated his power?  Hitler, however, was determined to stay  Went about making sure he had complete power  How?

11 1.Use of Violence  Stopped newspapers from criticizing the Nazis  Dismissed officials who opposed him  Use his unformed followers to break up meetings of other parties and beat up his opponents (SA & SS)  Extreme Nazi violence throughout the election campaign, especially against the communists

12 2.The Reichstag Fire  A week before the elections, the Reichstag building in Berlin went up in flames  Hitler blamed the fire on the communists  Used this as an excuse to issue an emergency law

13 The Reichstag Fire  This law removed freedoms promised by the Weimar Republic  Right to a fair trial  Free press  The fire was almost certainly started by the Nazis though the Germans did not know this then

14 3.Election Campaign  Called for new elections for the Reichstag (parliament)  Although the Nazi Party was the single largest party in the Reichstag, Hitler wanted an overall majority

15 Results of the Election Campaign  Results of election  Nazis obtained 43%  With the help of the Nationalist party, managed to scrap through an overall majority of 51%

16 4.The Enabling Act, 1933  Hitler now schemed to have the Reichstag give up its powers and rule as a dictator  To do this, the Reichstag had to pass an “Enabling Act” which required 2/3 majority  Hitler achieved this.  How do you think he did it?

17 The Enabling Act, WAYS 1.Banned communist deputies from coming to the Reichstag so they could not use their votes – Reichstag Fire 2.Persuaded the Centre Party to vote for the Act by giving vague promises 3.Using the votes of his allies, the Nationalist Party

18 Effects of Enabling Act  Because of the Enabling Act, democracy died in Germany  Other political parties were banned  Trade Unions taken over by the Nazis  Press, radio and cinema placed under total Nazi control

19 The End of Democracy in Germany  Opponents arrested, imprisoned or killed  Concentration camps and forced labour camps  SS and Gestapo struck terror into many Nazi opponents  Many fled the country eg Albert Einstein and the writer Thomas Mann

20 5.The Night of the Long Knives 1934 Hitler wanted to have complete power within his own partyHitler wanted to have complete power within his own party Ernst Rohm, leader of the SA, was disappointedErnst Rohm, leader of the SA, was disappointed –Not given a more important role in the new government –Started to create trouble for Hitler Hitler decide to get rid of him and many of his followersHitler decide to get rid of him and many of his followers How would you do that if you were Hitler?How would you do that if you were Hitler?

21 The Night of the Long Knives 1934 Hitler called the leaders of the SA to a special conferenceHitler called the leaders of the SA to a special conference During the night, he had them dragged out of bed and shotDuring the night, he had them dragged out of bed and shot On the same night, many other opponents all over Germany suffered the same fateOn the same night, many other opponents all over Germany suffered the same fate No public protests – demonstrated Hitler’s power and the people’s fearNo public protests – demonstrated Hitler’s power and the people’s fear This became known as the Night of the Long KnivesThis became known as the Night of the Long Knives

22 6.Establishing post of Fuhrer 2 months later, President Hindenberg died2 months later, President Hindenberg died Hitler combined the jobs of Chancellor and President – Fuhrer (Leader)Hitler combined the jobs of Chancellor and President – Fuhrer (Leader) He also became commander in chief of the armed forcesHe also became commander in chief of the armed forces He was now the supreme dictator of GermanyHe was now the supreme dictator of Germany

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24 1.Education  Aim of education – train young people up to be Nazis and loyal citizens of Nazi Germany  Education was carefully controlled  There was Race Studies as well as German History and Geography  Strict curriculum’ indoctrinated with Nazi ideas

25 2.Youth Movements Hitler Youth Movements:  Girls and boys (14-18 yrs) encouraged to join this organisation  Divided into different sections according to age  Those who did not join found it difficult to get in the University or to find jobs after leaving school  Military styled training / motherhood – women to stay at home and produce babies

26 3.Propaganda  Controlled by Ministry of People’s Enlightenment and Propaganda  Helped Germans agree with Nazi Germany  E.g. posters – images of Hitler throughout Germany  E.g. Radio to broadcast Hitler’s ideas, books, music, etc.

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28 4.Censorship  Banned undesired books  Burnt books  Newspapers tightly controlled  News slanted in favour of the Nazis

29 5. Strict control of people  Nazi Party – many ways of controlling the lives and influencing the thoughts of the German people  People were watched everywhere – at work, at school, even at home!  A PARTY REPRESENTATIVE in every street  Gestapo or Secret Police  SS – security forces as well as control of the police force

30 Strict control of the people  Declared Nazis the Aryan race – against undesirable – Jews, homosexuals, disabled people, etc.  Nazi controlled National Reich Church – celebrated Aryanism

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33 The Jews  Nazis had always attacked the Jews  Jews were blamed for all of Germany’s problems anti- semitic  Once in power, the Nazis began a campaign of anti- semitic persecution

34 The Jews  Jews were arrested and beaten up  Many forced out of their jobs  Jewish shops had slogans painted over their windows  People were discouraged from buying their goods  Many left Germany but most stayed  They had nowhere else to go

35 The Jews  Between 1933 and 1938, laws discriminating against Jews were passed  Jews were not allowed in the civil service and the judiciary  Jews were not considered German citizens  Jews could not take part in economic activity  Jews had to carry identity cards and passports which identified them as Jews

36 The Jews  1935 – Nuremberg Laws  forbade Jews to marry non-Jews  Persecution turned violent in 1938  Mass murder of Jews – what the Nazis called “The Final Solution” to the “Jewish problem” did not take place until after the outbreak of WWII

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38 The Economy  Hitler needed a strong economy to sustain his large army  He knew his Nazi Party would win more support if he could revive the economy and reduce unemployment

39 The Economy  Introduced road-building as one measure to solve Germany’s economic problems  Provided jobs for large numbers of people  Had the income to buy more goods which provided work for others  Other measures : reclaim waste land and pull down slums in the cities  In this way, Hitler was able to reduce the number of unemployed

40 Bridge over Rhine River near Köln- Rodenkirchen (A4) (photo taken in 1995)

41 The Economy  Rearmament started in Greater demand for armaments – jobs for people in the arms factories  A large party bureaucracy was set up, providing thousands of jobs  Purges of Jews and anti-Nazis from the civil service created more jobs for the other Germans

42 The Economy  Growth in German army also provided jobs  Conscription reintroduced in 1935  6 million unemployed in 1933 reduced to 2.5 million in 1935 to 250,000 in 1939  Made Hitler immensely popular with many Germans

43 Conclusion  Having fulfilled his promise of economic recovery, and knowing he had the German people’s support, Hitler was now ready for his next plan of action  To extend Germany’s border and prove to the world Germany’s superiority


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