The Nazis Take Power Lesson starter: 1.How many votes did the Nazis have by 1932? 2.Who were the Nazis’ main competition?
Today we will… Explain how Hitler became Chancellor Explain the events of the Reichstag Fire Identify the steps leading to a Nazi dictatorship
I can… Create a timeline which shows how Hitler became Führer of Germany
30 January 1932 Step 1: Hitler becomes Chancellor 30 January 1932 The Nazis were now the biggest party in the Reichstag They were constantly trying to manipulate the decision making process President Hindenburg offered Hitler the job of vice-chancellor and he refused Two right wing politicians convinced Hindenburg to appoint Hitler Chancellor This made him the head of the Reichstag (parliament)
General Von Schleicher I hate Hitler…but he could be useful to me… Franz Von Papen I know I can use Hitler to my advantage..If I side with Hitler the Nazi voters will like me too… President Hindenburg I don’t trust Hitler…but If I make him chancellor maybe I could keep a closer eye on him?
Therefore, In January 1932 Hitler was handed the most important job in Germany, the head of the German parliament Video 1 Video 2
Step 2: The Reichstag Fire 27 February 1933 Although Hitler was now chancellor, the Nazis still didn’t have a majority of the seats in the Reichstag – so the Nazis couldn’t make laws Hitler called a new election for 5 March 1933 to try and get a majority of the votes On the night of the 27 February, the Reichstag building went up in flames…
The police arrested a 24 year old Dutch man Marinus Van der Lubbe He had firelighters and matches in his pocket The Nazi party sprung into action Dr Geobbels announced Van der Lubbe was a Communist Hitler immediately blamed the Communists
“There will be no mercy now. Every Communist official will be shot where he is found. Everybody supporting the Communists must be arrested.”
(Article 48 of the Weimar constitution )Hitler persuaded Hindenburg to declare a State of Emergency (Article 48 of the Weimar constitution ) That meant normal rules did not apply The SA and police rounded up Communists and imprisoned them Around 4000 Communists were arrested within hours Communists were banned from the Reichstag Newspapers and letters were censored The German people were bombarded with anti- Communist propaganda
Reichstag Fire a conspiracy? It emerged there was an underground passage linking the Reichstag with offices used by Nazi members Some who gave evidence against Van der Lubbe were Nazis Most historians agree that Van der Lubbe was set up by the Nazis
When the March election took places, the Nazis now had 17 million votes (the Communists were now banned) It is not the actual fire that is important, but the fact that Hitler took advantage of the event and used it to give him more power
1. 2 nd May 1933 Hitler banned Trade Unions This meant workers had little say in their jobs – they did as Hitler said
2. 14 th July 1933 Hitler banned all other political parties The only party that could stand for election were the Nazis Most opposition politicians sent to camps Germany was now a one-party state
This memorial outside the Reichstag remembers all the ex Members of Parliament who died in concentration camps
Step 4: The Night of the Long Knives 30 June 1934 Now Hitler had wiped out the competition in Germany he now wanted to get rid of any ‘threats’ within the party He used the newly formed SS to kill anyone who had annoyed him in the past, such as Von Kahr from the Beer Hall Putsch and many SA members
June 1934 Now I have got rid of opposition political groups, I can now deal with opposition in my party. Ernst Rohm (an old friend), head of the S.A. is very unpopular with the German army leaders. They have the power to overthrow me.I’ve been worried about Rohm for a while, so this is a good excuse to bump him off.
On 30 th January 1934 the murders of any ‘threats’ to Hitler were carried out Hitler claimed these people were trying to overthrow him Around 400 people were killed under Hitler’s orders Ernst Röhm was one of those shot dead
Step 5: President Hindenburg Dies 2 nd August 1934 Hindenburg’s death truly marked the end of a democratic Germany Hitler took the step of combining the roles of President and Chancellor This new role would be ‘Der Führer’ – The Leader Within hours of Hindenburg’s death Hitler arranged for each army member to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler Now Hitler truly was completely in charge of Germany
Task: Timeline of Taking Power Create a timeline which shows the steps in establishing the Nazi dictatorship It should start on 30 th January 1932 It should end on 2 nd August 1934 It should contain six key steps Each one should be as detailed as possible 30 th Jan 1932 2nd August 1934
Optional Task Design a newspaper front page reporting about the Reichstag Fire the previous night You will need to decide whether to give your views from a pro-Hitler or anti-Hitler stance You should create a newspaper name, headline, etc as well as text and pictures.