Key Terms ► Beer Hall Putsch ► Mein Kampf ► Social Darwinism ► Lebensraum ► Enabling Act ► Third Reich ► SS
Lecture Outline ► I. Adolf Hitler A. Background and childhood B. WWI C. Nazis and the Rise to Power D. Creation of a totalitarian state
Hitler’s background and childhood ► He was born in Austria on April 20, 1889. ► His father died when he was 13. ► He moved to Vienna in 1907 but failed to get into art school. ► He lived in hostels in Vienna until 1913. ► Hitler moved to Munich in 1913 to avoid military service.
World War I ► When World War I broke out in 1914, Hitler volunteered to serve in a Bavarian regiment. ► After the war he was recruited by the Bavarian Army’s Intelligence/Propaganda section to undergo indoctrination. He was employed to preach German nationalism and anti-Socialism to the troops.
Hitler after World War I ► In 1919 the army requested that he infiltrate the German Workers’ Party, one of several right wing extreme nationalist parties in Munich. ► He resigned from the army in 1920. ► By 1921 he had taken control of the party and it had been renamed the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP), or Nazi for short.
Hitler after WWI ► By 1923 party membership reached 55,000 with 15,000 militia members, also known as Storm Troopers or Brownshirts.
Beer Hall Putsch ► Hitler staged an uprising against the government in Munich in November 1923. ► The uprising was quickly crushed and Hitler was sentenced to prison. ► While in prison he wrote Mein Kampf.
Mein Kampf ► Means My Struggle ► It is an account of his movement and his basic beliefs ► It links extreme nationalism, strong anti- Semitism, and anti-communism with Social Darwinism.
Social Darwinism ► Attempted to apply Darwin’s theory of evolution to modern human societies ► The most popular advocate of it was the British philosopher Herbert Spencer. He argued that human progress was the result of “the struggle for survival,” as the “fit” advanced while the weak declined.
Social Darwinism ► Houston Stewart Chamberlain, a Briton who had become a German citizen, believed that modern day Germans were the only pure ancestors of the Aryans.
Aryans ► Historically, Aryan refers to many tribal people from central Asia who are thought to have migrated to northern India, Iran, and parts of Europe about 2000 B.C. ► Chamberlain falsely portrayed the Aryans as a race and said that they were the original creators of Western culture, and that Jews were the racial enemy out to destroy the superior Aryans.
Lebensraum ► Hitler used Social Darwinism to emphasize the right of superior nations to lebensraum—living space—through expansion. ► Hitler also emphasized the right of superior individuals to gain authoritarian leadership
Hitler’s Rise to Power ► While in prison, Hitler realized that the Nazis would have to attain power by legal means. ► After his release from prison, Hitler expanded the Nazi Party to all parts of Germany. ► In July 1932 the Nazis had 800,000 members and had become the largest party in the Reichstag.
Hitler’s Rise to Power ► In July 1932 the Nazis demanded that Hitler be named Chancellor, but President von Hindenburg refused. ► In November 1932 new elections were held and the Nazis lost votes while the Communists gained.
Hitler’s Rise to Power ► The good showing of the Communists frightened conservatives so they formed an alliance with the Nazis. ► In January 1933, Hitler was invited by the conservatives to head a coalition government. ► On January 30, 1933, Hindenburg appointed Hitler Chancellor. ► Hitler’s first step was to abolish civil rights protecting the opposition.
The Nazi State ► On February 27, 1933, arsonists set fire to the Reichstag building. Hitler blamed the Communists. The police, who were largely controlled by the Nazis, attacked the Communists. The party was outlawed and their leaders were arrested. ► “Political” and “criminal” offenses were handed over to the political police (the Gestapo) and “People’s Courts.” Regular courts were forbidden from interfering with the police and confined to civil suits.
Enabling Act ► In March 1933 the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act which gave all power to Hitler. ► As Chancellor, Hitler could issue laws, even those violating the constitution, without consulting the Reichstag for four years to deal with the country’s problems. ► 1934—President von Hindenburg dies and the office of the president is abolished.
The Third Reich ► Hitler called his government the Third Reich or the third German empire. ► The First Reich was the Holy Roman Empire and the Second Reich was founded by Bismarck.
Hitler’s Totalitarian State ► In 1933 all political parties were disbanded and the Nazi party was declared the only lawful political organization in the country. ► Labor unions were abolished and strikes were forbidden. ► The government assumed increasing controls over industry, while leaving ownership in private hands.
Hitler’s Totalitarian State ► Churches were “coordinated” and their clergy were forbidden to criticize the government ► A Nazi Youth Movement and schools and universities indoctrinated youth in Nazi concepts.
Shutzstaffeln or Guard Squadrons (SS) ► The SS began as a bodyguard whose members took the oath of personal loyalty to Hitler and swore carry out without question any orders issued. ► They were the concentration camp guards. ► Was controlled by Heinrich Himmler
Hitler and the Economy ► Hitler used public works and grants to private construction firms to put people back to work and end the depression. ► A massive rearmament program was the key to solving the unemployment problem. ► Between 1932 and 1935 German steel production increased by 300%. ► Hitler expected the armed forces and the economy to be ready for war by 1940.
Hitler Speech Questions ► What were the effects of the end of WWI on Germany according to Hitler? ► What does National Socialism mean? ► How does Hitler describe the political, social, and economic situation of the Jews? ► What techniques does Hitler use to make his argument?
UN p. 793-801 ► Washington Conference ► Kellogg-Brian Pact ► Dawes Plan ► Manchuria ► Neutrality Acts ► Anschluss ► Sudetenland ► Munich agreement