Presentation on theme: "Non-Verbal Communication Panther Prep (Public Speaking) North Central High School."— Presentation transcript:
Non-Verbal Communication Panther Prep (Public Speaking) North Central High School
Non-Verbal Communication The words a speaker says are not the only way that he/she communicates with their audience. Other things that speak to the audience during a speech are the speaker’s: –Body language –Gestures –Facial Expressions –Personal Appearance
Body Language A speaker is a 4-D object. The audience perceives things about the speaker by how a speaker holds himself/herself. The perception of the speaker by the audience has an effect on how the audience perceives the message. The speaker can also make assumptions of how the audience is perceiving his/her message form their body language.
Body Language Clues Speaker: –Arms folded = Closed/ Arms out = Open –Locked to podium = Nervous/ Mobile = Confident –Fidgety = Nervous/ Solid = Confident –Looking around = Uninformed/ Eye Contact = Well informed Audience: –Leaning back = Unengaged/ Leaning forward = Engaged –Looking around = Bored/ Looking at speaker = Interested
Gestures Gestures can help the speaker emphasis a point or bring attention back to the speaker from a disengaged audience. They can also serve as a distraction to the audience. Just as a speaker should choose his/her words carefully, so should he/she use their gestures carefully.
Using Gestures Gestures can be used as: –Descriptive Gestures These gestures can be used to illustrate size, location, numbers, shape, relativity, etc. –Emphatic Gestures These gestures are used to express importance, to synchronize, to call attention to something or someone, etc. –Distracting Gestures These gestures do not match the speech or call attention away form the speaker of the main idea.
Facial Expressions The speakers face is the focal point of the speech in the absence of a visual aid. The look on a speakers face can set the tone and affect the audience’s mood. A smiling speaker makes his/her audience more comfortable while a scowling speaker intimidates his/her audience and causes them to be on guard. A speaker should make a conscious effort to smile and have a pleasant look to welcome the audience unless the tone of the speech is somber. This can be difficult if the speaker is nervous or intimidated by his/her audience.
Personal Appearance Being a speaker is like playing a part in a movie. Wardrobe and overall look determine what the audience will think of the character and what they say before they say it. RULE OF THUMB: Dress one step above what you expect of your audience. Grooming should not be at issue.
Paralanguage Paralanguage refers to HOW something is said. These vocal elements include: –Rate –Pause –Volume –Pitch –Intensity –Force –Voice Quality
Rate Rate refers to how fast the speaker is speaking. The average person speaks at 125-150 words per minute. The rate of speech can increase subconsciously because of nervousness, excitement and/or anger. A decrease in rate can be caused by depression or boredom. The rate of a speech should be as normal as possible while meeting the specifics of the speech.
Pause Pause can be used to add emphasis, or to call the audience to action/thought. Undue pause can indicate that the speaker is poorly prepared or is confused by his/her own content. –Verbalized Pauses: “Ums” and/or “Ahs” are most common. The repetition of a nonsensical word also qualifies. –Nonverbalized (Silent) Pauses: These are awkwardly long breaks in the speech that do not server a purpose.
Volume & Pitch Volume –Volume is how loud the speaker is. –Fluctuation, loud, or soft volume can indicate nervousness and/or lack of confidence. –Increase and decrease in volume can also be used within a speech to make a point. Pitch –Pitch naturally varies in speech (like at the end of a question.) –The lack of variance, or excessively hi/low pitch shows nervousness, or lack of confidence.
Articulation Articulation refers to the placement of consonant and vowel sounds together to form words. A speaker should articulate his/her words to avoid confusion and show education. Common articulation errors include: –Running words together (“did you” or “dija”) –Substituting one sound for another (“Student” or “Stoont”) –Omitting necessary sounds (“Asked” or “Ast”)
Pronunciation Pronunciation is articulation to the next level. It entails using the correct consonant and vowel sound, but also the correct accent and manner. Say “Emphasis” –Now, say “Emph`asis” Say “Syllable” –Now, say “Syll`able” Articulation and pronunciation are the background to communication because they determine what the audience hears and therefore what they decode.
Word Choice There are three main areas to think about when considering word choice: –Oral Style vs. Written Style No contractions in written, but ok in oral. Oral style is more conversational than written. –Concrete Language vs. Abstract Language Specific words (concrete) the audience can relate to are better than abstract concepts that can confuse. –Passive Voice vs. Active Voice Avoid wordy passive sentences like “The bone was retrieved by the dog.” Say “The dog retrieved the bone.”
Make it Interesting Here are some tips on making your speech more interesting to your audience through word choice: –Call on the senses of your audience (imagine the smell of fresh baked cookies, imagine the sound of metal bending and glass breaking.) –Use descriptive language and adjectives. (“We stayed in a house.” or “We stayed in a gothic mansion, with tall dark windows covered by parapets of stone, and toped with ominously weathered gargoyles.) –Make it personal. (Avoid the used of vague or generic names over real names. “The dog next door”, or “Bruiser, the 100 pound doberman”.)
Appropriateness Be sure to know your audience. Avoid questionable or profane language. (exception: when the audience is familiar AND the point is better made by using it and/or it is quoting a source.) Avoid off color topics or stories. It is impossible to know what will offend someone until it is said. Avoid dialectical pitfalls unless they are clearly for effect and can be distinguished from the speaker and the content.
Impromptu Speech: “Children’s Story” 8 speakers will be chosen Preparation: Tell a children’s story (either published or original) with a clear beginning, middle, and end. Delivery: You will have 3 min. to deliver the speech to an audience of children. (NO SCRIPTS) Be sure to include all of the following in your speech: –Where? When? Who? What? Why?—elements of a story. –Cite the source if this story is yours (original) or published. –Begin with something other than “Once Upon a Time” –Use exaggerated facial expressions, gestures, body language, and vocal expression. –A “lesson” or “moral” to the story.