2What is Dough?Basic doughs are a mix of flour, salt, yeast and water. White, brown or bun doughs.Enriched doughs have eggs, fat and sugar added. Baba, savarin or brioche doughs.Laminated doughs are enriched doughs with fat added in layers as for puff pastry. Danish paste or croissants.
3How does yeast work?Yeast feeds on sugars and produces CO2 as it dies.Yeast requires four elements to work:Time, mins for first prove.Warmth, working temp of C.Moisture, egg, milk or water.Food, sugar starch is needed.
4Why is it important?Bread products are an important basic feature of our diet.There is a demand for fresh bread products.Eaten for breakfast, lunch and dinner.Can be used as an ingredient in other dishes.
5Basic ingredients.Flour, strong flour has 12% protein. Many different varietiesYeast, can be fresh or dry. Should smell pleasant.Fats or oils, added to prevent moisture evaporating. Enriches and preserves products.Eggs, improves colour, food value and flavour. Raises quality and cost.
6Sugar, present as starch in flour Sugar, present as starch in flour. Some added to start fermentation, but will kill yeast.Salt, added for taste and preservative qualities, but will kill yeast.Milk, used to enrich and moisten doughs. Temperature is important.
7Quality points for basic doughs. Texture - too tight or too slack.Appearance - size, shape or contamination.Aroma - pleasant yeasty aroma. Unripe or overripe doughs.Consistency - same product each time. Doughs require different consistencies for their use, doughnuts for example.
8Preparation methods. Mixing - by hand or machine. Kneading - makes dough smooth and silky.Proving - yeast ferments and reproduces.Knocking back - removes gases, replaced with oxygen.Portioning - divide into even pieces.Moulding - mould, roll or shape for required recipe.
9Second proving - double in size, treat carefully. Baking - correct temperature required.Glazing - eggwash applied before and after second proving. Bun glaze added after product is cooked.
10Cooking dough products. Handle proved goods carefully.Preheat ovens to correct temperature.Cut, mark or decorate before baking.Cook for correct length of time.Take care when removing products from oven or fryer.Use of steam- only in correct oven.
11Cooking methods. Baking. From 230 - 260 0C. When cooked product should have a good colour and sound hollow when tapped.Times will vary according to size of the product.Sweet goods require a lower cooking temperature, 225 – 230 0C, due to the sugar content, to prevent caramelisation.
12Deep frying. Hot, deep fat at 193 0C. Doughnuts will need to be turned to cook evenly.Well drained and rolled in sugar.Clean fat is important.Care must be taken when working with hot fat.Cooking temperature is vital, too hot or too cold.
13Speciality doughs.Pizza bases. Made with cold water, less yeast and oil added.Naan bread. Indian flat bread cooked in a tandoor.Pitta bread. Middle eastern and Greek bread, cooked, split and filled with meat and vegetables.Chapatti. Indian unleavened bread.
14Tortilla. Mexican unleavened bread. Blini. Russian pancake style made with yeast.
15Decoration of bread products. Cut with sharp knife or scissors prior to second proof stage.Dusting with flour prior to baking.Brushing with lemon juice.Seeds, grains or salt added to the top.Eggwash or bun glaze.
16Quality points of cooked products. Texture - Cooked all the way through.Appearance – Similar size and shape, attractive marketing tool.Flavour – Should taste appropriate to recipe.Aroma – Pleasant and distinctive aroma.Consistency – Each batch should look similar for repeat orders.