2What is Pastry?Basic pastes are the building blocks of a great number of sweet and savoury dishes.A combination of flour, fat and liquid.Is used to produce tarts, flans, pies and cases.Can be baked or steamed.
3Why is it important?A wide range of dishes in kitchen, pastry and larder use pastry.Traditions of pastry goods from a wide range of countries inc. baklava, strudel and steak pie.As customer demand is more cosmopolitan it is important to know about and how to cook these items.
4Preparing basic pastry. Types of basic pastry. Short pastrySweet pastrySuet pastryBoiled pastry (choux)
5Short pastry. Should be light and easily broken when cooked. Contains no sugar, is the basis for savoury items.Soft flour and a range of fats are used.1:2 (50%) fat to flour ratio, bound with water.Aeration is important.
6Sweet pastry. Addition of sugar and eggs, reduction of water. Rubbing in or creaming method.Needs to be made and rested prior to use.Sugar caramelises to produce colour, so a lower cooking temp is required.Used for fruit flans, tarts, mince pies and barquettes.
7Suet pastry. Suet is the fat surrounding kidneys of cattle and sheep. Pastry combines suet, flour and water.Usually produced for steamed dishes inc. steak and kidney pudding and sweet steamed puddings with syrup, orange or lemon flavouring.Vegetarian alternative is now used esp. in mince pies.
8Boiled (choux) pastry. Made by adding flour to boiling water and fat. Needs to be cooked after addition of flour to gelatinise the starch and form a panade.Too much egg will result in a wet mix and end in mis-shapes.Boil, Beat and Bake.Used for éclairs, profiteroles and some potato dishes.
9Mixing methods. Rubbing in Short pastry Creaming Sweet pastry Flour batter Sweet pastryBlending Suet pastryFolding Puff pastryBoiling Choux pastry
10Common problems.Tough mix through overworking or insufficient resting.Use of wrong type of flour- strong or soft.Contamination through weevils or foreign bodies. Clean equipment and work surfaces is essential.Fat to flour ratio incorrect.Liquid content incorrect.
11Quality points. Texture. Does it feel right? Appearance. Does it look right?Consistency. Is it wet enough, or too wet?
12Cooking basic pastry. Cooking methods. Baking. Different pasties require different temperatures and times. Puff, choux, sweet and short.Steaming. Atmospheric (low) or high pressure steamer. Moist atmosphere is required.
13Quality points of a cooked pastry product. Appearance. Does it look cooked?Aroma. Does it smell pleasant?Texture. Does it feel cooked?Temperature. Is it hot enough in the centre?Time. Has it been in the oven the right amount of time for the recipe?
14Finishing methods. Dusting. Dusting with icing sugar, cocoa, cinnamon or a combination should be light and delicate, using a strainer, muslin or shaker. Different styles include:Scones - lightly dusted.Pithiviers - dusted and glazed.Victoria sandwich - dusted with a template.
15Piping.Piping with cream, chocolate or fondant requires practise. Health issues with the use of cream should be considered.Cream - Care taken not to overwhip.Chocolate - Can be thickened with glycerine, brandy or stock syrup.Fondant - Care taken not to overheat.
16Filling.Important in both raw and cooked goods. It is vital not to overfill the pastry or the look of the final product will be spoiled.Raw - Allow room for expansion or the pastry will spill or burst.Cooked- Ensure all items are filled equally, using attractive designs and appropriate nozzles.
17Glazing.Various methods of glazing pastries to obtain a brown colour or gloss finish.Hot & cold process gels.Eggwash- added salt helps to improve the glaze by denaturing the protein.Dust with icing sugar and grill or bake.Fondant- care must be taken with temperature control.Apricot jam- should be heated and strained before use.