Presentation on theme: "Unit 3: Biological Bases of Behavior Module #5: The Brain"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 3: Biological Bases of Behavior Module #5: The Brain AP Psychology
2TECHNIQUES TO LEARN ABOUT STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Clinical Observation (Case Study) – Observing specific brain diseases and injuries.Over 150 years ago people were studying patients with brain damage and linked loss of structure with loss of function.Essentially, losing brain tissue caused brain damage.
4Phineas GagePhineas Gage was a level-headed, calm foreman of a railroad crew in 1848.An explosion shot an iron rod through his head, severing the connections between his limbic system and his frontal cortex.Gage became hostile, impulsive, and unable to control his emotions or his obscene language.Autopsy revealed that the relationship between frontal lobes and control of emotional behavior.
6Lesions Precise destruction of brain tissue. Enabled more systematic study of the loss of function resulting from surgical removal, cutting of neural connections, or destruction by chemical applications.
7Measuring brain function Electroencephalogram (EEG): an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
8Measuring brain function The amplified tracings are called evoked potentials. Scientists introduce a stimulus and study the brain waves to learn about brain activity.
9Measuring brain function Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan: a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose (sugar) goes while the brain performs a given task.
10Measuring brain function Active neurons hog the glucose (the brain’s chemical fuel), and the PET scan tracks where in the brain the radioactive glucose goes.
11Measuring brain function Researchers can have participants think about certain topics or do activities to see where the glucose goes (thereby showing what part of the brain is active during that activity).
12Brain ImagingMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.
13Brain ImagingA head is put into a strong magnetic field to produce the image.Healthy IndividualSchizophrenic
14Measuring brain function Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain anatomy; fMRI scans show brain functions.
15Measuring brain function Researchers compare images taken less than a second apart, they can see which parts of the brain “light up” with increased blood flow.
16Brain ImagingComputerized Axial Tomography (CAT or CT): two-dimensional x-ray slices that are passed through various angles of the brain, arranged to show the extent of a lesion.
17The BRAINBrainstem – oldest part of the brain. Connects the brain with the spinal cord.Responsible for automatic survival function.
19Structure of Brain: Brainstem Medulla: where most fibers cross above the brain stem, resulting in contralateral (opposite side) control.regulates heart rate, blood flow, breathing, digestion, vomiting.
20Structure of Brain: Brainstem Reticular Formation: a nerve network in the brainstem (pons) that plays an important role in controlling arousal (awakening).
21Structure of Brain: Brainstem Pons: right above the medulla, helps coordinate movement, and is the bridge between cerebral hemispheres and both medulla and cerebellum.
22Structure of BrainThalamus: relay “station” for the brain. It receives information from all of the senses (except smell) and routes it to the brain regions that deal with those senses.Located at the top of the brain stem.
26The Limbic SystemResponsible for emotions like fear and anger, and basic need for food and sex.
27The LIMBIC SYSTEMHippocampus: Enables formation of new long-term memories.
28The Limbic SystemAmygdala: influences anger and fear. Coordinates fight-or-flight response.Removal will result in loss of anger.Stimulation will cause aggression.
29The Limbic SystemHypothalamus: controls autonomic functions such as body temperature and heart rate via control of sympathetic and parasympathetic centers in the medulla.Sets appetite drives (e.g. thirst, hunger, sexual desire) and behavior.
30The limbic systemHypothalamus: Integrates with endocrine system by secretion of hormones that regulate hormones from the pituitary.It’s the reward center because it’s responsible for pleasure.
31An electrode is connected to the hypothalamus, which causes the rat to cross the painful electric grid to press the pedal to send electrical impulses to its pleasure center (reward).
33Structure of BrainBasal Ganglia: links the thalamus with the motor cortex and other motor areas.regulates initiation of movements, balance, eye movements, and posture.Involved in reward/punishment learning and focus.
34Structure of BrainCerebral Cortex: receives and processes sensory information and directs movement.Center for higher order process such as thinking, planning, judgment.
45Broca’s areaIt was concluded that damage to this so-called Broca’s area caused a loss of ability to speak, known as expressive aphasia.
46Wernicke’s areaCarl Wernicke found another brain area involved with understanding language in the left temporal lobe.Destruction of Wernicke’s area results in loss of ability to comprehend written and spoken language, known as receptive aphasia.
47Broca’s areaPaul Broca (1861) did an autopsy on a patient named Tan, who couldn’t speak even though there was no physical damage and he could understand language.Tan’s brain showed loss of tissue in part of the frontal lobe of the left central cerebral hemisphere (as did several other similar cases).
48Review!!!EEG – Wave cap; studies brain wavesPET – Inject glucose, track where it goes. Shows brain activity.MRI – Uses magnetic fields to produce an image of soft tissue.fMRI – Track blood flow through brain.CAT – 2D x-ray of slice of brain.
49Review!!!Medulla – Heart rate, breathing, blood flowReticular Formation – Arousal (awakening), located inside of ponsPons – movementThalamus – Relay station; receives info from body (except smell) and sends to different parts of the brain.
53Reading AloudDepending on the damaged area different forms of aphasia occurs.Aphasia: impairment of languageDamage to:A. Angular gyrus – can speak and understand but not read.B. Wernicke’s area – can’t understand wordsC. Broca’s area – disrupts speaking
55Hemispheres Demonstration Rotate your right hand in a circle.Now rotate your right foot in the same direction.Now rotate your right foot in the opposite direction, without changing the direction of your hand.Difficulties arise because you are asking your left hemisphere to do two things.
56Hemispheres demonstration Rotate your right hand in a circle.Now rotate your LEFT foot in the same direction.Now rotate your LEFT foot in the opposite direction, without changing the direction of your hand.Easier because your left hemisphere controls your right hand and your right hemisphere controls your left foot.
57The BrainThe last evolutionary development of the brain is localization of functions on different sides of your brain.
59LOCALIZATION AND LATERALIZATION OF THE BRAIN’S FUNCTION The brain is contralateral.Contralateral: right/left hemisphere controls other side of body.The right side of the brain controls the left side of the body and vice-versa.
60Right hemisphere: nonverbal spatial, musical, and holistic functions identifying facesrecognizing emotional facial expressionscontrols the left side of the body
61Left hemisphere: verbal functions mathematical functions analytical functionslanguagecontrols the right side of the body
62LOCALIZATION AND LATERALIZATION OF THE BRAIN’S FUNCTION Association areas: regions of the cerebral cortex that do not have specific sensory or motor functions, but are involved in higher mental functions, such as thinking, planning, remembering, and communicating.
67Our Divided brainCutting the corpus callosum alleviates the symptoms of epilepsy.Split Brain results in both hemispheres operating independently of each other and can follow two separate orders simultaneously.Eg. Drawing two pictures with both hands at the same time.