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The Telencephalon SHANDONG UNIVERSITY Liu Zhiyu. General Appearance of Cerebrum The telencephalon consists of right and left cerebral hemisphere, partially.

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Presentation on theme: "The Telencephalon SHANDONG UNIVERSITY Liu Zhiyu. General Appearance of Cerebrum The telencephalon consists of right and left cerebral hemisphere, partially."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Telencephalon SHANDONG UNIVERSITY Liu Zhiyu

2 General Appearance of Cerebrum The telencephalon consists of right and left cerebral hemisphere, partially separated by cerebral longitudinal fissure In the depths of the fissure, the corpus callosum connects the hemispheres across the midline The cerebral transverse fissure intervenes between the hemispheres and the cerebellum Each hemisphere has three surfaces: superolateral, medial and inferior

3 Main Sulci Three principal sulci Central sulcus Lateral sulcus Parietooccipital sulcus Central sulcus Lateral sulcus Parietooccipital sulcus

4 Lobes of Cerebral Hemisphere Five lobes Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Temporal lobe Occipital lobe Insular lobe Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe Insular lobe

5 Sulci and gyri of frontal lobe Precentral sulcus Precentral gyrus Superior frontal sulcus Inferior frontal sulcus Superior frontal gyrus Middle frontal gyrus Inferior frontal gyrus

6 Sulci and gyri of frontal lobe Precentral sulcus Precentral gyrus Superior frontal sulcus Inferior frontal sulcus Superior, middle and inferioe frontal gyri

7 Sulci and Gyri of Parietal Lobe Postcentral sulcus Postcentral gyrus Intraparietal sulcus Superior parietal lobule Inferior parietal lobule Supramarginal gyrus Angular gyrus

8 Sulci and Gyri of Parietal Lobe Postcentral sulcus Postcentral gyrus Superior parietal lobule Supramarginal gyrus Angular gyrus Intraparietal sulcus

9 Sulci and Gyri of Temporal Lobe Superior temporal sulcus Inferior temporal sulcus Superior temporal gyrus Middle temporal gyrus Inferior temporal gyrus Transverse temporal gyri

10 Sulci and Gyri of Temporal Lobe Superior temporal sulcus Inferior temporal sulcus Superior temporal gyrus Middle temporal gyrus Inferior temporal gyrus

11 Transverse temporal gyri Sulci and Gyri of Temporal Lobe

12 Sulci and gyri of Superolateral surface Precentral sulcus Precentral gyrus Superior frontal sulcus Inferior frontal sulcus Superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri Postcentral sulcus Postcentral gyrus Superior parietal lobule Supramarginal gyrus Angular gyrus Superior temporal sulcus Inferior temporal sulcus Superior temporal gyrus Middle temporal gyrus Inferior temporal gyrus Intraparietal sulcus

13 Sulci and Gyri of Medial Surface Corpus callosum Callosal sulcus Cingulate gyrus Cingulate sulcus Marginal ramus Paracentral lobule Calcarine sulcus Cuneus Lingual gyrus

14 Sulci and Gyri of Medial Surface Corpus callosum Callosal sulcus cingulate gyrus Cingulate sulcus Marginal ramus Paracentral lobule Calcarine sulcus Cuneus Parietooccipital sulcus Lingual gyrus

15 Sulci and Gyri of Inferior Surface Olfactory bulb Olfactory tract Olfactory trigone Anterior perforated substance Collateral sulcus Occipitotemporal sulcus Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus Hippocampal sulcus Parahippocampal gyrus Uncus Hippocampus Dentate gyrus

16 Sulci and Gyri of Inferior Surface Olfactory bulb Olfactory tract Olfactory trigone Ant. Perforated substance Collateral sulcus Occipitotemporal sulcus Medial occipitotemporal gyrus Parahippocampalgyrus Uncus Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus

17 Hippocampus Dentate gyrus Hippocampal formation Sulci and Gyri of Inferior Surface

18 Histology of Cerebral Cortex Archicortex (hippocampal formation) Paleocortex (rhinencephalon) Neocortex (most of cerebral cortex) 3 cell layers 6 cell layers

19 Functional Location of Cerebral Cortex

20 First Somatic Motor Area Position: Located in precentral gyrus and anterior portion of paracentral lobule

21 First Somatic Motor Area Characters Representation is inverted, but head and face are upright A body part is represented by a cortical area proportional to its use rather than its size Receiving fibers from postcentral gyrus, v entral anterior, v entral lateral and v entral posterior nuclei Sending out fibers to form pyramidal tract, controlling voluntary movements

22 First Somatic Motor Area

23

24 First Somatic Sensory Area Position: Lies in postcentral gyrus and posterior portion of paracentral lobule

25 First Somatic Sensory Area Characters Sensory representation, like motor area, is crossed and inverted Receiving fibers from ventral posterior nucleus Interpret sensation from opposite side of body

26 First Somatic Sensory Area

27 Visual Area Lie on either side of calcarine sulcus in medial surface of occipital lobe Visual cortex of one hemisphere receives impression from temporal part of retina of same side and nasal part of opposite side Lesions of visual cortex produce contralateral homonymous visual field defections

28 Auditory Area Located in transverse temporal gyri Receive auditory information from both ears

29 Vestibular area: located in front of superior temporal gyrus Olfactory area: located near the uncus Taste area: located at frontal operculum

30 Language Area Motor speech area  Located in posterior portion of inferior frontal gyrus  Damage: motor aphasia Writing area  Located in posterior portion of middle frontal gyrus  Damage: agraphia Auditory speech area  Located in posterior portion of superior temporal gyrus  Lesion: sensory aphasia Visual speech area  Located in angular gyrus  Lesion: alexia It is dominant in left hemisphere in right-handed person

31 Position : located in cerebral hemispheres Four parts  Central part: lies in parietal lobe  Anterior horn: extends into frontal lobe  Posterior horn: extend into occipital lobe  Inferior horn: extend into temporal lobe Lateral Ventricle

32 Transverse MRI scan, at the level of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle.

33 Lateral Ventricle Communication lateral ventricle → interventricular foramen → third ventricle

34 Basal Nuclei Corpus striatum  Lentiform nucleus  Caudate nucleus Claustrum Amygdaloid body Putamen Neostriatum - paleostriatum Globus pallidus

35 Basal Nuclei Caudate nucleus Putamen Globus pallidus Claustrum

36 White Matter Association fibers Run between gyri within the same hemisphere Cerebral arcuate fibers Superior longitudinal fasciculi Inferior longitudinal fasciculi Uncinate fasciculus Cingulum

37 White Matter Commissural fibers Corpus callosum  Rostrum  Genu  Trunk  Splenium Anterior commissure Fornix and commissure of fornix

38 White Matter Projection fibers connect cortex with lower part of brain and spinal cord and they include both ascending and descending fibers ★ Internal capsule Position: a thick lamina of white matter lying between caudate nucleus, thalamus and lentiform nucleus

39 Internal Capsule Lentiform nucleus Caudate nucleus Dorsal thalamus

40 Internal Capsule Three parts Anterior limb of internal capsule  Lies between caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus  Containing frontopontine tract and anterior thalamic radiation Genu of internal capsule  Is angle at which anterior and posterior limbs meet  Containing corticonuclear tract Posterior limb of internal capsule  Lies between thalamus and lentiform nucleus  Contain corticospinal tract, corticorubral tract, central thalamic radiation, parieto-occipito- temporo-pontine tract, acoustic radiation and optic radiation

41 Anterior thalamic radiation Frontopontine tract Lentiform nucleus Corticorubral tract Parieto-occipito- temporo-pontine tract Acoustic radiation Optic radiation Head of caudate nucleus Corticonuclear tract Corticospinal tract Dorsal thalamus Central thalamic radiation Medial geniculate body Lateral geniculate body

42 Limbic System Composition  Limbic lobe: includes septal area, cingulated gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, temporal pole, anterior part of insular lobe and so on  Associated subcortical nuclei: amygdaloid body, septal nuclei, hypothalamus, epithalamus, anterior nucleus group of thalamus, tegmentum of midbrain Function: concerned with visceral activities, olfaction, emotion and memory, so this system is called ‘visceral brain’


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