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Gross Structure of the Brain Won Taek Lee, M.D., Ph.D. Deptartment of Anatomy Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine Won Taek Lee, M.D., Ph.D. Deptartment of.

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Presentation on theme: "Gross Structure of the Brain Won Taek Lee, M.D., Ph.D. Deptartment of Anatomy Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine Won Taek Lee, M.D., Ph.D. Deptartment of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gross Structure of the Brain Won Taek Lee, M.D., Ph.D. Deptartment of Anatomy Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine Won Taek Lee, M.D., Ph.D. Deptartment of Anatomy Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine

2 Nervous System  CNS (central nervous system) Brain Spinal Cord  PNS (peripheral nervous system) Peripheral Nerve Ganglion  CNS (central nervous system) Brain Spinal Cord  PNS (peripheral nervous system) Peripheral Nerve Ganglion

3 Central Nervous System - Brain

4 Gross Divisions of the Brain  Cerebrum (cerebral hemisphere)  Diencephalon  Cerebellum  Brainstem  Cerebrum (cerebral hemisphere)  Diencephalon  Cerebellum  Brainstem

5 telencephalon Cerebral cortex Cerebral white matter Basal ganglia Cerebral cortex Cerebral white matter Basal ganglia metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Cerebellum Pons Primary vesicle Secondary vesicle Derivatives Prosencephalon diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Subthalamus Epithalamus Thalamus Hypothalamus Subthalamus Epithalamus Mesencephalon mesencephalon Midbrain Rhombencephalon myelencephalon Medulla oblongata Embryonic (developmental) divisions of the Brain

6

7 Inner Structures of the Brain 1.Basal ganglia 2.Thalamus 3.Hypothalamus 4.Midbrain 5.Pons 6.Medulla oblongata 1.Basal ganglia 2.Thalamus 3.Hypothalamus 4.Midbrain 5.Pons 6.Medulla oblongata

8 Cerebrum – Cerebral Hemisphere 1.Cerebral Cortex - lobes, gyrus & sulcus 2. Cerebral White Matter (medullary center) 3. Basal Ganglia 1.Cerebral Cortex - lobes, gyrus & sulcus 2. Cerebral White Matter (medullary center) 3. Basal Ganglia Telencephalic structure –lateral ventricles

9 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (lateral surface) 1.Frontal lobe 2.Parietal lobe 3.Temporal Lobe 4.Occipital lobe 5.Limbic lobe 1.Frontal lobe 2.Parietal lobe 3.Temporal Lobe 4.Occipital lobe 5.Limbic lobe

10 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (medial surface) 1.Frontal lobe 2.Parietal lobe 3.Temporal Lobe 4.Occipital lobe 5.Limbic lobe 1.Frontal lobe 2.Parietal lobe 3.Temporal Lobe 4.Occipital lobe 5.Limbic lobe

11 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface) Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface) 1.Frontal lobe 2.Parietal lobe 3.Temporal Lobe 4.Occipital lobe 5.Limbic lobe 1.Frontal lobe 2.Parietal lobe 3.Temporal Lobe 4.Occipital lobe 5.Limbic lobe

12 Lateral Surface Precentral Gyrus --- primary motor area Superior Frontal Gyrus Middle Frontal Gyrus Inferior Frontal Gyrus Pars Opercularis Pars Triangularis Pars Orbitalis Medial Surface Medial Frontal Gyrus Paracentral Lobule Basal Surface Rectus Gyrus Orbital Gyrus Inferior Frontal Gyrus Lateral Surface Precentral Gyrus --- primary motor area Superior Frontal Gyrus Middle Frontal Gyrus Inferior Frontal Gyrus Pars Opercularis Pars Triangularis Pars Orbitalis Medial Surface Medial Frontal Gyrus Paracentral Lobule Basal Surface Rectus Gyrus Orbital Gyrus Inferior Frontal Gyrus Gyri of the Frontal Lobe ] Broca’s area (dominant hemisphere)

13 Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Lateral Surface)

14 Broca’s area Pars Opercularis Pars Triangularis Pars Orbitalis

15 Motor Homunculus

16 Photograph of the brain of Broca’s patient called “Tan” (real name is Leborgne). Broca’s Area Pars triangularis and pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus of dominant hemisphere.

17 Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Medial Surface)

18 Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface) Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface)

19 Gyri of the Parietal Lobe Lateral Surface Postcentral Gyrus ---- primary somesthetic area Superior Parietal Lobule Inferior Parietal Lobule ---- Wernicke’s area Supramarginal Gyrus Angular Gyrus Medial Surface Paracentral Lobule Precuneus Lateral Surface Postcentral Gyrus ---- primary somesthetic area Superior Parietal Lobule Inferior Parietal Lobule ---- Wernicke’s area Supramarginal Gyrus Angular Gyrus Medial Surface Paracentral Lobule Precuneus

20 Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Lateral Surface)

21 Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Medial Surface)

22 Sensory Homunculus

23 Gyri of the Occipital Lobe Lateral Surface Lateral Occipital Gyrus Superior Occipital Gyrus Inferior Occipital Gyrus Medial Surface Cuneus Lingual Gyrus Basal Surface Lingual Gyrus Occipitotemporal Gyrus Lateral Surface Lateral Occipital Gyrus Superior Occipital Gyrus Inferior Occipital Gyrus Medial Surface Cuneus Lingual Gyrus Basal Surface Lingual Gyrus Occipitotemporal Gyrus

24 Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Lateral Surface)

25 Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Medial Surface)

26 Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface) Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface)

27 Gyri of the Temporal Lobe Lateral Surface Superior Temporal Gyrus Middle Temporal Gyrus Inferior Temporal Gyrus Basal Surface Lingual Gyrus Occipitotemporal Gyrus Medial Occipitotemporal Gyrus Lateral Occipitotemporal Gyrus Lateral Surface Superior Temporal Gyrus Middle Temporal Gyrus Inferior Temporal Gyrus Basal Surface Lingual Gyrus Occipitotemporal Gyrus Medial Occipitotemporal Gyrus Lateral Occipitotemporal Gyrus

28 Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Lateral Surface)

29 Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface) Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface)

30 PET (positron emission tomography) scan

31 Gyri of the Limbic Lobe Outer Ring Cingulate Gyrus Isthmus of Cingulate Gyrus Parahippocampal Gyrus Uncus, Uncinate Gyrus Inner Ring Hippocampal Formation Hippocampus, Ammon's Horn Dentate Gyrus Fasciolar Gyrus Indusium Griseum (Supracallosal Gyrus) Paraterminal Gyrus (Subcallosal Gyrus) Subcallosal Area (Parolfactory Area) Outer Ring Cingulate Gyrus Isthmus of Cingulate Gyrus Parahippocampal Gyrus Uncus, Uncinate Gyrus Inner Ring Hippocampal Formation Hippocampus, Ammon's Horn Dentate Gyrus Fasciolar Gyrus Indusium Griseum (Supracallosal Gyrus) Paraterminal Gyrus (Subcallosal Gyrus) Subcallosal Area (Parolfactory Area)

32 Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (Medial Surface)

33 Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface) Gyri of the Cerebral Cortex (basal surface)

34 Structures of the Lateral Surface of the Brain

35 Structures of the Medial Surface of the Brain

36 Structures of the Basal Surface of the Brain 1 2

37 Insula of Reil

38 Structures around the Limbic Lobe 1 2 3

39 Structures of the Limbic Lobe 1 2 3

40 1 2 3

41 Structures of Fornix 1.Uncus 2.Hippocampus 3.Fimbria 4.Crus 5.Commissure 6.Corpus 7.Column 8.Mammillary body 1.Uncus 2.Hippocampus 3.Fimbria 4.Crus 5.Commissure 6.Corpus 7.Column 8.Mammillary body

42 Cerebral White Matter Projection fiber Corona radiata Commissural fiber Corpus callosum rostrum, genu, trunk, splenium Anterior commissure Commissure of fornix Association fiber Short association fiber Long association fiber Projection fiber Corona radiata Commissural fiber Corpus callosum rostrum, genu, trunk, splenium Anterior commissure Commissure of fornix Association fiber Short association fiber Long association fiber

43 Fibers of Cerebral White Matter (coronal section) 1. Corpus callosum 2. Internal capsule 3. Superior occipitofrontal fasciculus 4. Superior longitudinal fasciculus 5. Inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus 6. Cingulum 7. Uncinate fasciculus 8. Inferior longitudinal fasciculus 1. Corpus callosum 2. Internal capsule 3. Superior occipitofrontal fasciculus 4. Superior longitudinal fasciculus 5. Inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus 6. Cingulum 7. Uncinate fasciculus 8. Inferior longitudinal fasciculus

44 Basal Ganglia (traditional concept) Corpus striatum lenticular nucleus putamen globus pallidus caudate nucleus Amygdaloid body Corpus striatum lenticular nucleus putamen globus pallidus caudate nucleus Amygdaloid body

45 Basal Ganglia

46

47 Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Epithalamus Subthalamus Thalamus Hypothalamus Epithalamus Subthalamus 3 rd ventricle and tela choroidea 3 rd ventricle and tela choroidea

48 Diencephalon

49 Ventral Surface of Diencephalon

50 Cerebellum Anterior Lobe Posterior Lobe Flocculonodular Lobe flocculus, nodulus Vermis Paravermal Region Cerebellar Hemisphere Anterior Lobe Posterior Lobe Flocculonodular Lobe flocculus, nodulus Vermis Paravermal Region Cerebellar Hemisphere

51 Cerebellum (posterosuperior view) 1 23

52 Cerebellum (posteroinferior view) flocculus

53 Cerebellum (anterior view) 1 2 3

54 Cerebellum (medial view)

55 Brain Stem Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata 4 th Ventricle Rhomboid Fossa Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata 4 th Ventricle Rhomboid Fossa

56 Brain Stem Brain Stem Anterior surface Anterior surface III VI V VII VIII 5 IX X XI XII

57 Brain Stem Brain Stem Posterior surface Posterior surface IV

58 Rhomboid Fossa

59 Roof of the 4 th Ventricle 1 2

60 telencephalon Cerebral cortex Cerebral white matter Basal ganglia Cerebral cortex Cerebral white matter Basal ganglia metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Cerebellum Pons Primary vesicle Secondary vesicle Derivatives Prosencephalon diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Subthalamus Epithalamus Thalamus Hypothalamus Subthalamus Epithalamus Mesencephalon mesencephalon Midbrain Rhombencephalon myelencephalon Medulla oblongata Embryonic (developmental) divisions of the Brain


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