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Anatomy of the Central Nervous System

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy of the Central Nervous System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy of the Central Nervous System
Lecture 3

2 Telencephalon - Cortex
Gray Matter Somas and Dendrites Neocortex - 6 layers Sensory input ---> layer IV Motor output ---> layer V Paleocortex - 2 or 3 layers ~

3 Telencephalon - Fiber Systems
White Matter - myelinated axons 3 types of fiber systems Commissural Association Projection ~

4 Commissural Fibers Interconnect homologous structures in the two hemispheres Corpus Callosum Anterior and Posterior Hippocampal ~

5 Anterior Anterior

6 Association Fibers interconnect cortical areas within each hemisphere Projection Fibers all other fiber systems Fornix Corticospinal tract Mammillothalamic tract Naming convention ~

7 Hemispheres Left Right Association Commissural Projection

8 The Limbic System Emotion Learning & Memory Structures Thalamus
Hypothalamus Hippocampus Cingulate gyrus Amygdala Fornix ~

9 Limbic System Cingulate gyrus Hippocampus Fornix Thalamus Hypothalamus

10 Basal Ganglia Extrapyramidal Motor System Caudate Putamen Striatum
Globus Pallidus Claustrum Amygdala no motor function ~ Striatum Lenticular Nucleus

11 Caudate Globus pallidus Putamen Amygdala

12 Claustrum

13 Diencephalon Surrounds third ventricle Thalamus
sensory and motor relay nuclei Hypothalamus motivation & emotion ~

14 Thalamus Lateral Geniculate Nuclei - LGN
vision Medial Geniculate Nuclei - MGN audition Ventroposterior Nuclei - VPL & VPM somatosensation Massa Intermedia - crosses midline ~

15 Hypothalamus fighting 4Fs feeding fleeing, and ... mating
Controls the pituitary gland ~


17 Diencephalon: thalamus
Massa Intermedia MGN LGN

18 Diencephalon Hypothalamus Pituitary Stalk

19 Mesencephalon Surrounds cerebral aqueduct Tectum
Superior Colliculi - vision Inferior Colliculi - audition Tegmentum

20 Thalamus Superior Colliculi Inferior Colliculi Tectum

21 Tegmentum Periaqueductal Gray - pain
Reticular Formation - sleep and arousal, attention Red Nucleus and Substantia Nigra - motor system Ventral Tegmental Area - VTA - reinforcement

22 Cross-section of Tegmentum
Reticular formation Dorsal PAG Red Nucleus Substantia Nigra Ventral Tegmental Area

23 Metencephalon Surrounds fourth ventricle Cerebellum
coordinates movements Pons Sleep and arousal Reticular formation ~

24 Cerebellum Pons

25 Myelencephalon Medulla - “Vital Centers” Thalamus Reticular formation

26 Spinal Cord Dorsal Ventral Gray Matter White Matter Central Canal

27 Spinal Cord Dorsal Horns Dorsal Lateral Ventral Ventral

28 Spinal cord Dorsal horn - sensory input Lateral horn - autonomic N.S.
Ventral horn - motor output ~

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