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09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt1 Endocrine Glands.

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Presentation on theme: "09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt1 Endocrine Glands."— Presentation transcript:

1 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt1 Endocrine Glands

2 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt2 Endocrine Glands Hypothalamus Pituitary –Anterior lobe –Posterior lobe Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Adrenal Glands –Cortex –Medulla Islets of Langerhans Gonads –Ovaries –Testes Pineal gland Thymus others

3 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt3 Hypothalamus Part of brain –Regulates ANS, emotions, feeding/satiety, thirst, body temperature, etc. –Hormones related to these functions “Releasing hormones” Axonal transport to posterior lobe

4 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt4 Hypothalamus “Releasing” hormones regulate Anterior Pituitary –Growth hormone-releasing H. –Growth hormone-inhibiting H. –Thyrotropin-releasing H. –Corticotropin-releasing H. –Gonadotropin-releasing H. –Prolactin-releasing H.

5 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt5 Hypothalamus Hypothalamic cell bodies synthesize oxytocin and ADH Axonal transport to posterior pituitary Release from posterior pituitary

6 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt6 Pituitary Anterior lobe (= adenohypophysis) –Growth H. (hGH) –Prolactin –Melanocyte-stimulating H. (MSH) –Thyroid-stimulating H. (TSH) –Adrenocorticotropic H. (ACTH) –Follicle-stimulating H. (FSH) –Luteinizing H. (LH)

7 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt7 Pituitary—Anterior lobe Growth hormone (GH or hGH) –Promotes mitosis, cell division –Elongation of long bones, etc. –Healing of wounds –Lack of hGH retards growth

8 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt8 Pituitary—Anterior lobe Growth hormone Lack of hGH retards growth Charles Stratton, 1838-1883, “adopted” & trained by P.T. Barnum. “General Tom Thumb” ~ 33 in. (84 cm) tall Married Lavinia Warren, 1863. Died of CV disease.

9 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt9 Pituitary—Anterior lobe Growth hormone –Oversecretion in youth produces giantism –Oversecretion in adult produces acromegaly

10 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt10 Pituitary—Posterior lobe Posterior lobe (= neurohypophysis) Site of release of hormones synthesized in hypothalamus –Oxytocin –Antidiuretic H. (ADH)

11 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt11 Pituitary—Posterior lobe Oxytocin –Stimulates smooth muscle contraction of uterus & mammary glands. Antidiuretic H. –Stimulates water reabsorption in collecting ducts. –Stimulates vasoconstriction (vasopressin) –Lack  diabetes insipidus

12 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt12 Thyroid Gland Location in neck –Inferior to larynx –Anterior & lateral to trachea Thyroxine (T 4 ) Triiodothyronine (T 3 ) Calcitonin

13 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt13 Thyroid Gland Composed of follicles –Follicle cells produce thyroglobulin Thyroxin (T 4 ) Triiodothyronine (T 3 ) –Parafollicular cells Calcitonin

14 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt14 Parathyroid Glands Four small glands embedded in posterior of thyroid –Parathyroid hormone (PTH) –Stimulates osteoclasts to free Ca from bone –Stimulates Ca uptake from intestine

15 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt15 Adrenal Glands One on top of each kidney –Cortex Steroid hormones –Medulla Epinephrine Norepinephrine

16 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt16 Adrenal Glands Cortex –Activity stimulated by ACTH –Mineralcorticoids Aldosterone –Glucocorticoids Cortisol –Gonadocorticoids Androgens Estrogens

17 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt17 Adrenal Glands Medulla –Develops as “misplaced” sympathetic ganglion –Cells are modified neurons (lack axons) –Epinephrine –some Norepinephrine

18 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt18 Islets of Langerhans “About a million” embedded in pancreas Control centers for blood glucose Insulin from beta cells Glucagon from alpha cells

19 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt19 Islets of Langerhans Insulin stimulates glucose uptake, glycogenesis Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis, glucose release from liver

20 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt20 Gonads Ovaries –Estrogens –Progesterone Testes –Testosterone, etc. Reproductive functions when we study reproductive system.

21 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt21 Pineal gland Suspended in third ventricle from diencephalon Melatonin –? Inhibits early puberty –? Day/night cycles Timing of sleep, body temperature, appetite

22 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt22 Thymus = “Thymus gland” Thymopoietins, thymic factor, thymosins –Influence development of T lymphocytes

23 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt23 others Stomach, small intestine Heart  ANP Kidneys  erythropoietin Adipose tissue  leptin Skin  cholecalciferol (vit. D precursor) Placenta  progesterone

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