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Pages 239-252 Expect to see most of these structures in your brain dissection.

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Presentation on theme: "Pages 239-252 Expect to see most of these structures in your brain dissection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pages Expect to see most of these structures in your brain dissection

2 Regions of the Brain Cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum) Diencephalon Brain stem Cerebellum Ventricles © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Cerebral hemisphere Brain stem Cerebellum Diencephalon (b) Adult brain

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6 Cerebrum Two hemispheres (left & right) comprise the superior parts of the brain Includes more than half of the brain mass The longitudinal fissure divides the hemispheres Surface has ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci) (pg. 242) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 Parts of each hemisphere Three layers of each cerebral hemisphere 1. Cerebral Cortex (gray matter) 2. Cerebral White matter 3. Basal nuclei (deep pockets of gray matter)

8 Layers of the Cerebral Hemispheres Gray matter: outer layer in the cerebral cortex; composed mostly of neuron cell bodies (gray designates unmyelinated fibers) White matter: fiber tracts deep to the gray matter Carry impulses to/from cortex also known as commissures Corpus callosum (large fiber tract) connects hemispheres (white designates myelinated fibers) Basal nuclei (ganglia): nerve cell bodies that form islands of gray matter buried deep within the white matter © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 Precentral gyrus Frontal lobe Central sulcus Postcentral gyrus Parietal lobe Parieto-occipital sulcus (deep) Lateral sulcus Occipital lobe Temporal lobe Cerebellum Pons Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Gyrus Sulcus Cerebral white matter Fissure (a deep sulcus) Cerebral cortex (gray matter) (a)

10 Longitudinal fissure Lateral ventricle Basal nuclei (basal ganglia) Thalamus Third ventricle Pons Medulla oblongata Superior Association fibers Commissural fibers (corpus callosum) Corona radiata Fornix Internal capsule Projection fibers

11 Lobes of each hemisphere Fissures (deep grooves) further divide the cerebral hemispheres into four lobes Each lobe coincides with its respective cranial bone Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

12 Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Parietal lobe Left cerebral hemisphere Occipital lobe Cerebellum Brain stem Cephalad Caudal (b)

13 Diencephalon Sits on top of the brain stem Cerebral hemispheres wrap around it Three parts: 1. Thalamus: surrounds the third ventricle 2. Hypothalamus: lies under the thalamus 3. Epithalamus: roof of third ventricle © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 Cerebral hemisphere Brain stem Cerebellum Diencephalon (b) Adult brain

15 Third ventricle Anterior commissure Hypothalamus Optic chiasma Pituitary gland Mammillary body Pons Medulla oblongata Spinal cord (a) Cerebral hemisphere Corpus callosum Choroid plexus of third ventricle Occipital lobe of cerebral hemisphere Thalamus (encloses third ventricle) Pineal gland (part of epithalamus) Corpora quadrigemina Cerebral aqueduct Cerebral peduncle Fourth ventricle Choroid plexus Cerebellum Midbrain

16 Regions of the Brain: Brain Stem Attaches to the spinal cord Three parts: Midbrain: connects 3 rd and 4 th ventricles Pons: solely a collection of nerve fiber tracts Medulla oblongata: nerve fiber tracts; homeostatic fx. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 Third ventricle Anterior commissure Hypothalamus Optic chiasma Pituitary gland Mammillary body Pons Medulla oblongata Spinal cord (a) Cerebral hemisphere Corpus callosum Choroid plexus of third ventricle Occipital lobe of cerebral hemisphere Thalamus (encloses third ventricle) Pineal gland (part of epithalamus) Corpora quadrigemina Cerebral aqueduct Cerebral peduncle Fourth ventricle Choroid plexus Cerebellum Midbrain

18 Regions of the Brain: Cerebellum Two hemispheres Convoluted (folded/twisted) surfaces Each hemisphere has: Outer layer: gray matter Inner layer: white matter Called the arbor vitae because of its branched tree-like appearance © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

19 Third ventricle Anterior commissure Hypothalamus Optic chiasma Pituitary gland Mammillary body Pons Medulla oblongata Spinal cord (a) Cerebral hemisphere Corpus callosum Choroid plexus of third ventricle Occipital lobe of cerebral hemisphere Thalamus (encloses third ventricle) Pineal gland (part of epithalamus) Corpora quadrigemina Cerebral aqueduct Cerebral peduncle Fourth ventricle Choroid plexus Cerebellum Midbrain This midsagittal section shows the gray matter outlining the arbor vitae (white)

20 Ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid Four ventricles in the brain; central canal of spinal cord Ventricles create a system for distribution of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to bathe nervous tissue CSF: provides a cushion for the nervous tissue Is formed from blood by choroid plexuses, clusters of capillaries in each ventricle Is composed of proteins, sugars, few white blood cells, and NO red blood cells


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