Presentation on theme: "Memory Dr. Urooj Sadiq Memory: Active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) information Encoding: Converting information into."— Presentation transcript:
Memory: Active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) information Encoding: Converting information into a useable form Storage: Holding this information in memory Retrieval: Taking memories out of storage Memory: Key Terms
Stages of Memory 1.Sensory Memory 2.Short-Term Memory 3.Long-Term Memory
Sensory Memory/Sensory register: Storing an exact copy of incoming information for less than a second; until it has been processed the first stage of memory Icon: A brief mental image or visual representation Echo: After a sound is heard, a brief continuation of the sound in the auditory system Sensory Memory
Short-Term Memory (STM): second stage of memory; stores small amounts of information briefly; very sensitive to interruption or interference Phonetically: Storing information by sound; Memory Span: STM is limited to holding seven (plus or minus two) information bits at once Chunk: Meaningful units of information in memory Short-Term Memory (STM)
Also called Working Memory Whatever information is in conscious awareness. Any information that we are remembering or manipulating occurs in STM.
Recoding: Reorganizing or modifying information in STM Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating information silently to prolong its presence in STM Elaborative Rehearsal: Links new information with existing memories and knowledge in LTM; Good way to transfer STM information into LTM Storing Info in STM
Chunking: Try and remember the following string of letters (in order): XCI AFB IVC RDN AIB MQZ
Chunking: Try and remember the following string of letters (in order):
Long-Term Memory (LTM) Storing information relatively permanently Stored on basis of meaning and importance Long-Term Memory (LTM)
Explicit (declarative) memory (facts): factual knowledge & personal experiences Semantic Memory: Impersonal facts and everyday knowledge Episodic Memory: Personal experiences linked with specific times and places Implicit (procedural) Memory (skills): Long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills, e.g., driving Types of Long-Term Memory
Loss of Memory Anterograde amnesia: the inability to form new explicit long-term memories for events following brain trauma or surgery. Explicit memories formed before are left intact. Cause possibly is damage to hippocampus Retrograde amnesia: the disruption of memory for the past, especially espisodic memory. After brain trauma or surgery, there often is retrograde amnesia for events occurring just before. Infantile/child amnesia: the inability as adults to remember events that occurred in our lives before about 3 years of age. Due possibly to fact that hippocampus is not fully developed.
Recall: Direct retrieval of facts or information Serial Position Effect: Hardest to recall items in the middle of a list Primacy effect: easier to remember items first in a list than items in the middle, because first items are studied the most Recency effect: easier to remember items last in a list than items in the middle, because the last items were last studied Serial Position Effect
A Little Demonstration: Serial Position Effect See in class!
Comparison of Three Stages of Memory Sensory 1.Large capacity 2.Contains sensory information 3.Very brief retention (1/2 sec for visual; 2 secs for auditory) Short Term 1.Limited capacity 2.Acoustically encoded 3.Brief storage (up to 30 seconds w/o rehearsal) 4.Conscious processing of information Long Term 1.Unlimited capacity 2.Semantically encoded 3.Storage presumed permanent 4.Information highly organized
Types of Processing Automatic processing: memory processing that occurs subconsciously and does not require attention. Example: How many of you can sing the theme song for Drama humsafar ? How many learned it on purpose? Effortful processing: memory processing that occurs consciously and requires attention Example: How many of you can name all of the divisions of the nervous system? How many learned it on purpose?
Levels-of-Processing Theory Levels-of-processing theory: a theory of information processing in memory that assumes that semantic processing leads to better long-term memory Physical memory processing: encoding the word “birthday” by the way it is spelt, b – i – r – t – h – d – a – y Acoustic memory processing: encoding the word “birthday” by the way it sounds Semantic memory processing: encoding the word “birthday” by its meaning, “a day of joy and celebration, to remember the anniversary of one’s birth.”
Factors Affecting Encoding Encoding specificity principle: the principle that the environmental cues present at the time information is encoded into long-term memory serve as the best retrieval cues for the information. State-dependent memory: long-term memory retrieval is best when a person’s physiological state at the time of encoding and retrieval is the same. Mood-dependent memory: long-term memory retrieval is best when a person’s mood state at the time of encoding and retrieval is the same. Mood-congruence effect: long-term memory retrieval is best for experiences and information that are congruent with a person’s current mood.
Recall: a measure of long-term memory retrieval that requires the reproduction of the information with essentially no retrieval cues. Recognition: a measure of long-term memory retrieval that only requires the identification of the information in the presence of retrieval cues. Relearning: the savings method of measuring long-term memory retrieval, in which the measure is the amount of time saved when learning information for the second time. Measuring Retrieval
Example: Recall versus Recognition Example of Recall: The process of storing information in memory is called ______________. Example of Recognition: The process of storing information in memory is called: a. rehearsalb. deep processing c. encodingd. retrieval
Encoding failure theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the failure to encode the information into long-term memory Forgetting Due to Encoding Failure?
Storage decay theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the decay of physical traces of the information in the brain; periodically using the information helps to maintain it in the brain The “Use it or lose it” theory! Forgetting Due to Decay in Storage?
Interference theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to other information in memory interfering Proactive interference: old information interferes with the retrieval of newly-stored information Retroactive Interference: newly-stored information interferes with the retrieval of previously-stored information Forgetting Due to Interference?
Cue-dependent theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the unavailability of the retrieval cues necessary to locate the information in long-term memory. This is one explanation for why we do not seem to have many memories from early childhood (ages 3 to 6 or so) Forgetting Due to Loss of Cues?
Knowledge of Results: Feedback allowing you to check your progress Recitation: Summarizing aloud while you are learning Rehearsal: Reviewing information mentally (silently) Selection: Selecting most important concepts to memorize Organization: Organizing difficult items into chunks; a type of reordering Some Ways to Improve Memory
Whole Learning: Studying an entire package of information at once, like a poem Part Learning: Studying subparts of a larger body of information (like text chapters) Progressive Part Learning: Breaking learning task into a series of short sections Serial Position Effect: Making most errors while remembering the middle of the list Overlearning: Studying is continued beyond bare mastery More Ways to Improve Memory
Spaced Practice: Alternating study sessions with brief rest periods Massed Practice: Studying for long periods without rest periods Lack of sleep decreases retention; sleep aids consolidation Hunger decreases retention Yet More Ways to Improve Memory
Mnemonics: Memory “tricks”; any kind of memory system or aid - Using mental pictures - Making things meaningful - Making information familiar - Forming bizarre, unusual or exaggerated mental associations A Last Method to Help Memory