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Flag if India (right) flags of Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia (below)

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Presentation on theme: "Flag if India (right) flags of Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia (below)"— Presentation transcript:

1 flag if India (right) flags of Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia (below)

2  Two groups rid India of foreign rule:  _____________ (Hindus-see symbol below left)  _____________ (Muslims-see symbol below right)

3  ________________________ ________________________ _____________________  The British promised reforms in return for service during WWI, but Britain did not fulfill its promise.  Radical nationalists carried out acts of violence.  British passed the _____________________ allowing the government to jail protestors without trial for as long as two years. Sir Sidney Arthur Taylor Rowlatt (20 July 1862 - 1 March 1945) was an English lawyer and judge, best remembered for his controversial presidency of the Rowlatt committee, The committee gave rise to the Rowlatt Act, an extension of the Defense of India Act 1915.

4  In protest of Rowlett Acts ___________ and Muslims flocked to Amritsar in 1919 where they fasted, prayed, and listened to political speeches.  The British had banned public meetings. The British commander of Amritsar ordered British troops to fire on the crown without warning for __________________. Colonel Reginald Edward Harry Dyer nicknamed “The Butcher of Amritsar” was the commander responsible for ordering the firing on civilians, including women children.

5  400 Indians were killed and _________________.  Almost overnight the ________________ changed millions of Indians from loyal British subjects into Indian nationalists.

6  The troops who fired on the unarmed civilian crowd were armed with.303 Lee-Enfield rifles.

7  He was a Church of England priest who favored Indian independence and became a close friend of ________________.  He called the Amritsar Massacre a “cold- blooded ____________________.”

8 ______________ emerged as the leader of the independence movement.  Gandhi’s strategy involved his deeply religious approach to political activity.  He blended ideas of all the major world’s religions.  He came to be called Mahatma (meaning “____________________”).

9  Gandhi urged the _______________ to follow a policy of noncooperation with the British government.  In 1920, the Congress Party endorsed civil disobedience (the deliberate and public refusal to obey an unjust law).  Gandhi launched his civil disobedience campaign to weaken _____________ and economic power.

10  Gandhi asks Indians to refuse to buy British goods, attend government schools, pay British taxes, or vote in elections.  Gandhi also staged a _______________  He urged all Indians to weave their own cloth  He himself spent two hours a day spinning his own yarn.  The sale of ______________ in India dropped sharply.

11  ________________ took economic toll on the British  1920 British arrest thousands of Indians who took part in _________________.  In spite of please for nonviolence, protests led to riots.

12  In 1930, Gandhi organized the Salt March in protest of the Salt Acts.  Indians could only buy salt from the government which was taxed  Gandhi and followers marched 240 miles to the sea where the people made their own salt.

13  Some demonstrators marched to a _____________ processing plant but were met with violence.  About _____________, including Gandhi, were arrested during demonstrations against the salt tax.

14  In 1935, the _______________ passed the Government of India Act.  Provisions:  local self-government  granted limited democratic elections  Limits: It did not __________________.

15  The Government of India Act fueled tensions between Muslims and Hindus.  Two groups had different __________________.  ______________ feared being outnumbered by Indian Hindus.

16 Breakup of the Ottoman Empire and growing Western political and economic interest spurred the rise of nationalism.

17  Turkey kept its homelands  _____________  small strip of land around ____________

18  1919 Greek soldiers invade Turkey  Turkish sultan powerless to stop the Greeks.  1922 Mustafa__________, a nationalist leader  successfully fought back the Greeks and their British backers.  after winning a peace, overthrew the last Ottoman sultan.

19  1923 Kemal became president of the new Republic of Turkey and ushered in reforms.  separated laws of Islam from the laws of the nation  abolished religious courts and created a new legal system  granted women the _____________  launched government funded programs to industrialize Turkey  _______________, but left a legacy of a new national identity. He is called the “father of the Turks.”

20  After WWI, when Russia was still reeling from the ___________, the British tried to take over all of Persia.  A ______________ was triggered.

21  ____________ seized power in 1921, and in 1925 deposed the ruling shah.  He set out to modernize the country  established public schools  built roads and railroads  promoted industrial growth  extended women’s rights  He kept all power in his own hands  He changed the name of the country from Persia to Iran

22  In 1902, Abd al-Azis Ibn Saud began a successful campaign to unify Arabia  In 1932 the new kingdom was called Saudi Arabia  Ibn Saud carried on Arab and Islamic traditions. Loyalty was based on custom, religion, and family ties .

23  _______ brought modern technology to the country, but limited to what was religiously acceptable.  _______ was practiced

24  Rising demand for petroleum products brought new oil explorations to Southwest Asia.  _________ companies discovered oil in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait  ________ discovered nearly two-thirds of the world’s oil supply was in the Persian Gulf region.  ________ then began to try to dominate this region.

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