Kemal Ataturk Who: “Father of the Turks”, war hero, nationalist Where: Turkey (old Ottoman Empire) When: 1919-1920s What: Westernized Turkey (clothing, education, calendar, alphabet), separated religion and government (secularism), made Turkey a republic, gave women rights, industrialized Why: Wanted Turkey to be free of western rule and the sultan; wanted to be respected by the west (“civilized”), industrialized and modernized
Reza Khan WHO: Army officer; Shah of Iran WHEN: 1925 WHERE: Iran WHAT: Overthrew the shah and put himself in power. Built factories, roads and railroads, modernized and westernized, gave women rights. WHY: Russia and Britain had spheres of influence in Iran, Khan wanted them out.
MANDATES WHO: European powers and the Arab nations WHERE: Arab world WHEN: Post-WWI WHAT: Territories controlled by European powers WHY: European powers do not respect the sovereignty of Arab nations because they are not “civilized” like the west, or modernized.
PAN-ARABISM WHO: Arab nations WHEN: Post-WWI WHERE: Arab world WHAT: The movement to unite all Arab people WHY: To free Arab nations of foreign control
The Amritsar Massacre 1. In 1919 there were attacks on British citizens in Amristar, so public meetings were banned. 2. A large group of Indians assembled on April 13, and British troops fired on them without warning. 3. 400 were killed; 1200 wounded 4. British rule MUST end!
MOHANDAS GANDHI WHO: Indian Nationalist WHERE: India WHEN: 1920s-1940s WHAT: Taught nonviolence and civil disobedience; led the Salt March and boycotts on British goods and products; rejected the caste system. Helped India gain independence in 1947 before he was assassinated. WHY: He wanted to free India of British rule.
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE WHO: Gandhi WHERE: India WHEN: 1920s-1940s WHAT: Not obeying unjust laws (ie: Gandhi gathering salt from the sea when Britain had a monopoly on it) WHY: To fix problems in society or change the laws
HOMEWORK Study card test tomorrow on #18-26 18. Toussaint L'Ouverture 19. Simon Bolivar 20. Jose de san Martin 21. Congress of Vienna 22. Prince Clemens von Metternich 23. balance of power 24. conservatism 25. liberalism 26. nationalism
Ghandi 1. In the 1920s and 1930s, a leader named Mohandas Gandhi headed the Indian nationalist movement. 2. He taught non-violent resistance and civil disobedience were the way to win rights. 3. Used boycotting, and embraced ideas of democracy and nationalism. 4. Rejected the caste system and urged equal rights for all. 5. India achieved independence in 1947.
INDIAN NATIONALISM 1. 1 million Indians had served the Allies in WWI. 2. During the war, Britain promised India greater self-government. 3. After the war, Britain failed the fulfill these promises.
CHINESE NATIONALISM 1. After WWI, China was in total disorder. 2. Sun Yixian stepped down, so rival warlords fought for power. 3. The economy collapsed, and peasants faced hardships. 4. Foreign powers increased their influence in China. Sun Yixian
Rival Groups in China 1. Several movements emerged in China. 1. MAY FOURTH MOVEMENT Student movement; wanted to make China stronger through modernization. Democracy and nationalism. 2. COMMUNISTS Inspired by Marx and Lenin, a Communist party was formed. 3. NATIONALISTS After Sun Yixian’s death, Jiang Jieshi took over the Guomindang
May Fourth Movement Protestors at the May Fourth Movement, dissatisfied with Article 156 of the Treaty of Versailles for China.
Kuomintang WHO: Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) WHERE: CHINA WHEN: 1925-1950 WHAT: A nationalist group supported by middle class businessmen, who did little for the peasants. Fought the communist party in China during the civil war. They lost. WHY: Sun Yixian (founder of Chinese Republic) stepped down and people in China fought for power. When Yixian died, Jieshi took over the Kuomintang.
Great Depression WHO: The USA and the world WHEN: 1929-1930s WHERE: Worldwide WHAT: US investors pulled money out of Europe, high tariffs on imported goods; nations that traded with the USA saw their economies collapse. People began questioning capitalism and democracy. WHY: The American Stock Market crashed and it triggered the depression; global economic collapse
Civil War 1. At first, Communists and Nationalists worked together to unite China. 2. Jiang Jieshi began to see Communists as a threat. 3. A civil war began between the two groups that would last 22 years!