Presentation on theme: "Flag if India (right) flags of Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia (below)"— Presentation transcript:
flag if India (right) flags of Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia (below)
Two groups rid India of foreign rule: Indian National Congress (Hindus-see symbol below left) Muslim League (Muslims-see symbol below right)
Until WWI, the vast majority of Indians had little interest in independence. The British promised reforms in return for service during WWI, but Britain did not fulfill its promise. Radical nationalists carried out acts of violence. British passed the Rowlett Act in 1919 allowing the government to jail protestors without trial for as long as two years. Sir Sidney Arthur Taylor Rowlatt (20 July 1862 - 1 March 1945) was an English lawyer and judge, best remembered for his controversial presidency of the Rowlatt committee, The committee gave rise to the Rowlatt Act, an extension of the Defense of India Act 1915.
In protest of Rowlett Acts 10,000 Hindus and Muslims flocked to Amritsar in 1919 where they fasted, prayed, and listened to political speeches. The British had banned public meetings. The British commander of Amritsar ordered British troops to fire on the crown without warning for 10 minutes. 400 Indians were killed and 1,200 were wounded. Almost overnight the Amritsar Massacre changed millions of Indians from loyal British subjects into Indian nationalists. Colonel Reginald Edward Harry Dyer nicknamed “The Butcher of Amritsar” was the commander responsible for ordering the firing on civilians, including women children.
The troops who fired on the unarmed civilian crowd were armed with.303 Lee-Enfield rifles.
He was a Church of England priest who favored Indian independence and became a close friend of Mohandas Gandhi. He called the Amritsar Massacre a “cold- blooded massacre and inhumane.”
Mohandas K. Gandhi emerged as the leader of the independence movement. Gandhi’s strategy involved his deeply religious approach to political activity. He blended ideas of all the major world’s religions. He came to be called Mahatma (meaning “great soul”).
Gandhi urged the Indian National Congress to follow a policy of noncooperation with the British government. In 1920, the Congress Party endorsed civil disobedience (the deliberate and public refusal to obey an unjust law). Gandhi launched his civil disobedience campaign to weaken British authority and economic power.
Gandhi asks Indians to refuse to buy British goods, attend government schools, pay British taxes, or vote in elections. Gandhi also staged a boycott of British cloth He urged all Indians to weave their own cloth He himself spent two hours a day spinning his own yarn. The sale of British cloth in India dropped sharply.
Civil disobedience took economic toll on the British 1920 British arrest thousands of Indians who took part in strikes and demonstrations. In spite of please for nonviolence, protests led to riots.
In 1930, Gandhi organized the Salt March in protest of the Salt Acts. Indians could only buy salt from the government which was taxed Gandhi and followers marched 240 miles to the sea where the people made their own salt. Some demonstrators marched to a British salt processing plant but were met with violence. About 60,000 people, including Gandhi, were arrested during demonstrations against the salt tax.
In 1935, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act. Provisions: local self-government granted limited democratic elections Limits: It did not grant total independence.
The Government of India Act fueled tensions between Muslims and Hindus. Two groups had different visions for independence. Indian Muslims feared being outnumbered by Indian Hindus.
Breakup of the Ottoman Empire and growing Western political and economic interest spurred the rise of nationalism.
Turkey kept its homelands Anatolia small strip of land around Istanbul
1919 Greek soldiers invade Turkey Turkish sultan powerless to stop the Greeks. 1922 Mustafa Kemal, a nationalist leader successfully fought back the Greeks and their British backers. after winning a peace, overthrew the last Ottoman sultan.
1923 Kemal became president of the new Republic of Turkey and ushered in reforms. separated laws of Islam from the laws of the nation abolished religious courts and created a new legal system granted women the right to vote launched government funded programs to industrialize Turkey Kemal died in 1938, but left a legacy of a new national identity. He is called the “father of the Turks.”
After WWI, when Russia was still reeling from the Bolshevik Revolution, the British tried to take over all of Persia. A nationalist revolt was triggered.
Reza Shah Pahlavi seized power in 1921, and in 1925 deposed the ruling shah. He set out to modernize the country established public schools built roads and railroads promoted industrial growth extended women’s rights He kept all power in his own hands He changed the name of the country from Persia to Iran
In 1902, Abd al-Azis Ibn Saud began a successful campaign to unify Arabia In 1932 the new kingdom was called Saudi Arabia Ibn Saud carried on Arab and Islamic traditions. Loyalty was based on custom, religion, and family ties Ibn Saud brought modern technology to the country, but limited to what was religiously acceptable. No democracy was practiced.
Rising demand for petroleum products brought new oil explorations to Southwest Asia. European and American companies discovered oil in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait Geologists discovered nearly two-thirds of the world’s oil supply was in the Persian Gulf region. Western nations then began to try to dominate this region.