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© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 1 John W. Santrock Socioemotional Development in Infancy 8
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 2 Personality Development Trust versus mistrust: Erikson’s first stage of development –Infants experience world as either secure and comfortable or insecure and uncomfortable –Continuity not guaranteed How Do Emotions and Personality Develop in Infancy?
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 3 Theories of Attachment Freud: Infants become attached to person or object giving oral satisfaction –Disproved by Harlow’s research: regardless of which mother fed monkeys, both preferred cloth mother contact –Erikson: First year is key for attachment How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy?
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 4 Harlow’s Results: Contact time with wire and cloth surrogate mothers 24 0 6 12 18 21-251-5 6-10 11-10 16-20 Age (days).................... Fed by wire mother Fed by cloth mother Hours per day spent with wire mother Hours per day spent with cloth mother Mean hours per day Fig. 8.5
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 5 Theories of Attachment Bowlby: instinct for attachment occurs in four phases, increases chances of survival –Phase 1: birth to 2 mos. –Phase 2: from 2 to 7 mos. –Phase 3: from 7 to 24 mos. –Phase 4: from 24 mos. on How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy?
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 6 Measuring Attachment Ainsworth’s strange situation: measures infant’s attachment to caregiver –Requires infant to move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions Securely attached Insecure avoidant How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy? Insecure resistant Insecure disorganized
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 7 Fig. 8.6 30 0 10 40 50 60 70 20 JapanU.S.Germany Percentage of infants Resistant SecureAvoidant Cross-Cultural Comparison of Attachment: Ainsworth’s strange situation applied to infants in three countries in 1988
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 8 The Significance of Attachment Some developmentalists believe secure attachment in first year provides important foundation for psychological development How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy? Others believe too much emphasis is placed on attachment bond in infancy –Ignores diversity of socializing agents and contexts
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 9 Caregiving Styles and Attachment Classification How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy? Baby attachmentCaregiver behaviors Securely attachedSensitive to signals, consistently available AvoidantUnavailable, rejecting ResistantInconsistent responses DisorganizedNeglect, physical abuse
Emotional Development. Why do infants become attached to their caregivers? Behaviorists: drive reduction model –hunger basic drive –food primary reinforcer.
American psychologist Harry Harlow conducted many experiments on attachment using rhesus monkeys.
How we develop attachment?
American Psychologist He provided a new understanding of human behavior and development through studies of social behavior of monkeys. His research.
Social development An Overview.
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Chapter 5: Entering the Social World
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Socio-emotional Development in Infancy ©2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
Psy 311: Attachment1 WHAT IS SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY? l Social development is learning – primary drives – secondary drives – reinforcement.
Chapter 4: Infancy: Socioemotional Development. Attachment: The Basic Life Bond History Behaviorists (Watson, Skinner) minimized human attachment.
Attachment First social relationship; Strong emotional bond between infant and caregiverFirst social relationship; Strong emotional bond between infant.
Attachment Strong emotional bond one individual forms for anotherStrong emotional bond one individual forms for another Endures across timeEndures across.
Chapter 14 Attachment and Social Relationships
Emotional Development in the Early Years The Life Span Human Development for Healthcare Professionals, Chapter 4.
Slide 1 © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 10 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Emotional Development.
Life-Span Development Thirteenth Edition
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
Culture and Emotional Development Cultural differences in parenting practices and values contribute to differences in emotional expression. (e.g. empathy)
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