12Brazelton’s Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) An assessment measure that hospitals use the first few days of a baby’s life.28 measures are grouped into 7 clustersIncludesNeurological examinationAssessment of social responsivenessAssessment of behavioral capabilities
13Clusters of Brazelton’s Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale HabituationOrientationMotor tone and activityRange of StateRegulation of stateAutonomic stabilityReflexes
15Habituation and Learning Habituation Method To study infant perceptual abilities, researchers habituate infants to certain stimuli and then change the stimuli.ExamplesHabituating neonates to turn their heads to the left to obtain milk whenever a bell was rungNeonates learned to turn on a light by turning their heads to the left.
16Man is the only animal that can be bored Erich FrommMan is the only animal that can be bored
17Physical and Motor Development Erik EriksonFirst Psychosocial StageTrust vs. Mistrust
18First 4 Monthsdoubled in weighteyes have begun to focusthe 1st tooth is about to eruptmost reflexes have disappearedFrom 5 to Eight Monthsincreasing competence in fine andgross motor skillsplaying gamescrawling, bearwalking, scooting
19From 9 to 12 Monthsabout three times heavier than theywere at birthmay be walkingcan manipulate the environmentusing a pincer graspFrom 13 to 18 Monthsare walking on their owncan stack blockscan feed themselvesMay be able to undress partially
20From 19 to 24 Monthsare called toddlerscan pedal a tricyclecan jump in placecan climb stairscan scribblecan dress and undress withoutassistance
22Sensory and Perceptual Development SensationThe translation of a stimulus by a sense organPerceptionThe complex process by which the mind interprets and gives meaning to sensory information
23Studying Infant Perceptual Capabilities The novelty ParadigmClosely related to habituation methodThe Preference MethodGives a choice of stimuli to look at or listen toThe Surprise MethodRelies on the fact that infants react with surprise when their expectations are violatedEvent-Related Potential MethodProvides the equivalent of a complex electroencephalograph
24Vision and Visual Perception Infants are born with a full intact set of visual structures.Newborns’ eyes are sensitive to brightnessThey have some control over eye movementNewborns focus optimally on objects at a range of 7 to 10 inchesThey look primarily at the edges and contours of objectsAre responsive to human face and are able to imitate facial expressionsBy the first 4 to 6 months, infants can focus almost as well as adults, acuity sharpens, and they can discriminate between most colors
26Depth and Distance Perception Because the newborn eyes are not well coordinated and the infant has not yet learned to interpret all of the information transmitted by the eyes.Early depth perception is probably not very sophisticated.Even when coaxed by their mothers, infants 6 months or over will not crawl over the edge of the visual cliff.
27Auditory PerceptionNeonates can hear. They are startled by loud soundsNewborns are soothed by low-pitched sounds such as lullabiesInfants seem able to localize sounds, and prefer human voices
28Taste, Touch, and SmellThey are fully operating at birth, and the sense of touch is well developed.
29Sensory Integration and Intermodal Perception Research generally indicates that either the senses are integrated at birth or integration occurs early and rapidly.Behavior and emotion become integrated over time as a result of the interaction of experience and maturation
30Cognitive Development The Active MindInfants take an active role in their cognitive development.This was the basic position of Jean Piaget.Infants possess mental structures called schemes that process and organize information.This occurs in a series of stages.
32Jean Piaget 1- Knowledge = motor behavior 2- Universal stages in a fixed order3- Qualitative and quantitative acquisition of knowledge4- Mental Structures or schemes5- Two Principles:AssimilationAccommodation
331- Acquisition of Knowledge Action = KnowledgeInfants attain understanding of the world by doing.Knowledge is a product of direct motor behaviorChildren don’t learn:Through sensation and perceptionFrom facts communicated by others
342- Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage(birth – 2)Preoperational Stage(2 – 7)Concrete Stage(7 – 11)Formal Operations Stage(12 – adulthood)
36Sensorimotor Stage Substages 1- Simple Reflexes (first month)Reflexes determine the infant’s interaction with world2- First Habits & Primary Circular Reactions (1 – 4 months)Coordination of actionsRepeating enjoyable actions on the infant’s own body
37Sensorimotor Stage Substages 3- Secondary Circular Reactions (4 – 8)Repeated actions meant to bring about desirable consequence on the outside world
38Sensorimotor Stage Substages 4- Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions (8 – 12)Goal Directed BehaviorSeveral schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problemObject PermanenceThe realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen
40Sensorimotor Stage Substages 5- Tertiary Circular Reactions (12 – 18)The deliberate variation of actions to bring desirable consequences6- Beginning of Thought (18 – 24)Symbolic RepresentationThe use of a word, picture, gesture or other sign to represent past & present events, experiences, and concepts.Understanding CausalityDeferred Imitation
413- Quality and QuantityUntil the 1930s, children were considered like miniature adults as far as intelligence was concerned.They were supposed to differ from adults in the quantity of knowledge they had managed to acquire.According to Piaget, children acquire knowledge in a qualitative and quantitative manner.
42ConstructivismAll we know is based on our mental construction or ideas.We don’t passively discover knowledge ready-made.We actively construct knowledge.How?
434- Schemes/Mental Structures Infants have mental structures or schemes:(organized patterns of sensorimotor functioning)Sensorimotor FunctioningPhysical activity that changes with mental development
445- Principles for Children’s Schemes 1- Assimilation2- Accommodation
455- Principles for Children’s Schemes 1- Assimilation is when people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development or way of thinking.Example:A flying squirrel = a birdThe child is assimilating his existing scheme of a bird.
465- Principles for Children’s Schemes 2- Accommodation is change in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.Example:A flying squirrel = a bird with a tailThe child is accommodating to new knowledge, modifying her scheme of “bird”
47Criticism on Piaget’s Theory Piaget constructed his view by mainly observing his three children (not a representative population)A stable and differentiated perceptual world is established much earlier in infancy than Piaget envisionedMemory and other forms of symbolic activity occur by at least the second half of the first year.
48Memory in Infancy Infants as young as 3 months old show memory skills. The Large Black Boxes StudyInfants predicted a four-step sequence and most could remember it up to 2 weeks later.Carolyn Rovee-CollierInfants can remember intricate material.Nancy MyersAn infant’s experience at 6 months can be remembered 2 years later.
49Infants’ Memory Infantile Amnesia The lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to three years of ageAlthough memories are stored from early infancy, they cannot be easily retrieved.Early memories are susceptible to interference from later events.Memories are sensitive to environmental context.
50Infants’ Intelligence 1- Development QuotientArnold Gesell2- Bayley Scales of Infant DevelopmentNancy BayleyAre useful in identifying infants who are significantly behind their peersAre not good for predicting future behavior
51Development Quotient Arnold Gesell An overall developmental score that relates to performance in 4 areas:1- Motor Skills (balance and sitting)2- Language Use3- Adaptive Behavior (alertness & exploration)4- Personal-Social (feeding and dressing)
52Bayley’s Scales of Infant Development Nancy Bayley A measure that evaluates an infant’s development from 2 to 3 monthsIt focuses on 2 areas:1- Mental ScaleSenses, perception, memory, learning, problem solving, language2- Motor ScaleGross motor skillsFine motor skills
53Contemporary Approaches to Assess Infant Intelligence Visual-recognition MemoryCross-modal TransferenceMeasure how quickly infants process informationThese measures correlate moderately well with later measures of intelligence
54Visual-Recognition Memory Measures how quickly an infant can retrieve previous experiences of a stimulus from memory1- Measures how quickly infants lose interest in stimuli that have already been seen2- Measures their responsiveness to new stimuli.
55Cross-Modal Transference Measures the ability to identify a stimulus that has previously only been experienced through one sense by using another sense.ExampleIdentifying a screw driver that she has only previously touched, but not seen
56Other Criteria in Determining Adult Intelligence The degree of environmental stimulationIntelligence measured by IQ tests relates to a particular type of intelligence, one that emphasizes abilities that lead to academic success but not artistic or professional success.So, predicting that a child will do well on IQ tests does not necessarily indicate success in life.
57Linguistic Competence Phonemes Basic sounds oflanguageMorphemes words, suffixes,prefixesSemantics Rules that governthe meaning of wordsSyntax How words are combined into meaningfulstatementsPragmatics The use of language incontext
5812 weeks cooing, smiles when talked to 16 weeks turns head in response to human voice20 weeks makes vowels and consonant sounds6 months babbling (all sounds)8 months repeat certain syllables (ma-ma)12 months understands and says some words18 months can produce up to 50 words24 months more than 50 words, two-word phrases30 months about 100 words, phrases of 3-5 words36 months vocabulary of about 1,000 words48 months most basic aspects of language are well established
59TermsHolographic Speech the use of single words to convey complete thoughtsOverextensions the tendency to overgeneralize wordsTelegraphic Speech omitting the less significant words and including the words that carry the most meaningPivot Grammar action words + nouns (see Daddy)
60A Different Language for Boys and Girls Hear twice as many diminutivesParents respond with a soft answerAre exposed to warmer phrasesBoysDon’t hear as many diminutivesParents respond with a firm “no”Hear clearer languageAs adults they tend to be more assertive
61Language AcquisitionCognitivePiagetRationalistChomskySocialLearningBehavioristSkinner-Mental schemes that child can apply a linguistic label to itInnate tendency to acquire language-Innate acquisition device-learned-imitation-Acquired by consequen-ces or by reinforce-ment
62Information Processing Approaches Encoding Recorded in memory(Keyboard)Storage Saved in memory(on hard drive)Retrieved Brought into awareness(on screen)
63Information-Processing Automatization 1- Knowledge acquisition is automatic when processes require little attentionChildren are automatically aware of how often they have encountered people.Automatically, children develop an understanding of concepts, categorizations of objects, events, or people.2- Knowledge is deliberate and controlled when processes require large amounts of attention.
64Information Processing Approaches Cognitive ArchitectureDetermines the specific steps through which material is processed as it travels through the human mind.Assume that the basic architecture of information-processing systems is constant over the course of development, although the speed and capacity of the system are thought to grow.
65Prelinguistic Communication 2 – 3 months to 1 yr babbling10 – 14 months holophrases15 months 15 words16 – 24 months 100 words18 months telegraphic speech19 months first sentence