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CSD 2230 HUMAN COMMUNICATION DISORDERS Topic 2 Normal Communication Development and Communication Across the Lifespan.

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Presentation on theme: "CSD 2230 HUMAN COMMUNICATION DISORDERS Topic 2 Normal Communication Development and Communication Across the Lifespan."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSD 2230 HUMAN COMMUNICATION DISORDERS Topic 2 Normal Communication Development and Communication Across the Lifespan

2 Newborns Primary form of communication is through their cry

3 Newborn Communication Communication intents though crying: Pain or discomfort Hunger Overload

4 Newborn Reflexes Some common ones: Palmer grasp Rooting reflex

5 Newborn Vision and Hearing Vision: Nearsighted but are sensitive to brightness and color Prefer sharp contours and contrasts

6 Newborn Vision and Hearing Hearing: Middle ear fluid Evidence of categorical perception, although auditory integration is still immature Prefer voices to other kinds of auditory stimuli, especially their mother’s Reflexes: Startle response Auropalpebral response

7 Newborn Speech Skills Primarily reflexive sounds at birth Oral reflexes Crying

8 Newborn Communication Skills Communication develops quickly because of the way caregivers communicate and interact with newborns

9 Changes in Communication Behavior and Development Over the first six months: Some reflexes begin to extinguish More voluntary motor control First smile/other facial expressions Vision acuity and tracking improves

10 Changes in Response to Sounds During this period, babies start to pay attention to sounds. What do they do when they are listening? Decrease or increase ongoing activity Changes in breathing rate Changes in vocalization Eye widening Changes in facial expression Changes in sucking rate

11 Localization to Sounds Emerges around the third month Starts with the eyes and eventually includes a full head turn Clinical application

12 Changes in Speech Increased development and use of non- distress sounds Some productions of vowel sounds and back consonants /g/ and /k/ By 3 months, vocalization in response to caregiver’s vocalizations

13 Babbling Emerges at around 4 months Random sound play Extremely important landmark of infant development Single syllable units of CV or VC construction Deaf babies

14 Changes in Speech By 6 months, see evidence of more complex sound combinations Labial sounds like /m/ and /p/ are produced more often Stop consonants (p,t,b,k,g,d), nasal consonants (m, n, ing) and vowels comprise about 80% of sounds produced Evidence of reduplicated babbling Emergence of imitative behavior

15 Communication with Caregivers Recognition increases Eye contact improves “Dialogs” emerge Rituals Interest in toys and objects emerges

16 In Summary… By six months, most babies: Make a lot of different sounds React appropriately to different voices Turn and look for sounds Babble with purpose Respond to their name Try to imitate sounds and vocalizations

17 The Second Half of the First Year Gross and fine motor control continue rapid gains Most children are walking independently by 1 year

18 Auditory Behaviors and Development  Auditory sensitivity similar to adult hearing  Localization ability well developed Clinical implications  Ability to hear phonemic distinctions Non-native languages is poor Native language is well preserved  Good ability to discriminate and identify familiar sounds

19 Communication With Caregivers Nonvocal communication is very important, yet is a temporary phase Language comprehension far exceeds language expression ability Able to follow simple commands or requests Characteristics of conversations at this time Child communicates nonverbally and adult communicates orally

20 Landmarks in Speech Development by One Year The use of one or more words with meaning Typical first words include “mama”, “dada”, other nouns important in the child’s life Concept words come next Babbling development gets the child to this point

21 Stages of Babbling During this Time Echolalia--imitation Varigated babbling--syllables aren’t identical Jargon Phonetically consistent forms Representation

22 In Summary.. By the end of one year, most children can: Recognize their name Understand “no” Use several words with meaning Imitate sounds and use them in play Laugh and demonstrate humor Hear well and discriminate a lot of different sounds Show lots of affection and empathy Scribble imitatively with crayons or markers Demonstrate the importance of the social value of speech

23 Stimulating a One Year Old’s Speech and Language Read colorful books to the child Encouraging imitation Talk, Talk, Talk Reward and encourage a baby’s early effort at production


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