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Cognitive Development in Infants & Toddlers Chapter 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Development in Infants & Toddlers Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognitive Development in Infants & Toddlers Chapter 5

2 Piaget’s Theory of Genetic Epistemology Child is an active seeker of information Major Themes – Method Clinique (clinical method) – Constructivism – Schemes (Schemata) – Organization – Adaptation – Reflective Abstraction

3 Piaget’s Theory of Genetic Epistemology Method Clinique – Pose problem to the child – Observe child’s attempt to solve the problem – Probe with questions to determine underlying strategy and information needed to solve the problem – Problems: With prelinguistic infants, inferences must be made

4 Piaget’s Theory of Genetic Epistemology Constructivism – Each experience is represented in a unique way by each individual – Construction of representation is based on: History Strategy Social/Environmental support

5 Piaget’s Theory of Genetic Epistemology Scheme (Schemata) – Organized representation of Actions (e.g. reflexes) Thoughts (e.g. concepts) Processes (e.g. problem solving strategies) – Schemata provide the framework with which we interpret new experiences and construct new schemata or integrate new information into existing schemata

6 Piaget’s Theory of Genetic Epistemology Organization – Across development Schemata are constantly differentiated and integrated – Schemata are organized into increasingly complex systems – Organizations may reflect hierarchical or network organizations

7 Piaget’s Theory of Genetic Epistemology Adaptation – Tendency of the organism to modify itself to meet environmental demands – System seeks equilibrium with its environment through two processes Assimilation Accommodation – Process of reaching equilibrium is termed equilibration

8 Piaget’s Theory of Genetic Epistemology Reflective Abstraction – Process of construction of an internal representation from external stimuli Recognition or awareness of some external stimulus Processing the stimulus in one’s working memory (controlled) Modification (accommodation) of cognitive structures (schemata) to form a representation of experience

9 Piaget’s Theory of Genetic Epistemology Stages of Cognitive Development – Qualitatively different ways of knowing the world – Sequence is universal – Timing of onset of each stage is unique and depends on Neurological maturation Experience with others and the outside world

10 Piaget’s Theory of Genetic Epistemology Sensorimotor (Infancy-Early toddlerhood) Preoperational (Early childhood) Concrete Operational (Middle childhood) Formal Operational (Adolescence)

11 Piaget’s Theory of Genetic Epistemology Characteristics of Sensorimotor Thought – Knowledge is based on direct sensory and motor experience – Mental representation is based on direct representation of sensory and motor experience – Symbolic representation emerges late in the stage – Key accomplishments: Person permanence Object permanence Symbolic representation Sense of intentionality and primitive cause-effect

12 Piaget’s Theory of Genetic Epistemology Stages of Sensorimotor Thought – Primary Reflexes – Primary Circular Reactions – Secondary Circular Reactions – Coordination of Secondary Schemes – Tertiary Circular Reactions – Transition to Symbolic Thought

13 Language Development in Infancy & Toddlers What is language? – Semanticity—symbolic representation of object, actions, events, concepts – Productive—seemingly infinite combinations of words that lead to utterances that can be understood – Displacement—allows reference to objects, actions, events, and concepts in their absence – Arbitrary—no direct relationship between the sound and structure of a word and the object, action, event, or concept it represents

14 Language Development in Infancy & Toddlers Structures of Language – Phonology/Grapheme – Morphology – Syntax – Semantics – Pragmatics

15 Language Development in Infancy & Toddlers Theories of Language Development – Learning/Environmental Theories Skinner—Operant Conditioning Bandura—Vicarious Learning (modeling and imitation) – Nativist Theory Chomsky—Language Acquisition Device (innate structure containing universals of language)

16 Language Development in Infancy & Toddlers Nativist Theory – All physiologically intact humans have capacity to develop language – Unclear whether non-human animals develop language – Physical structures specialized for language Wernicke’s area—comprehending words and producing spoken and written langauge Broca’s area—production of speech – Sensitive periods render the young child at an advantage in learning language

17 Language Development in Infancy & Toddlers Nativists critiqued based on – Lack of evidence of innate knowledge of “universals of language” – Lack of experimental studies to refute nativists’ assumptions (depravation studies)

18 Language Development in Infancy & Toddlers Interaction Theories: – Cognitive: Language and cognition are directly linked As cognitive development proceeds, children move through increasingly complex representational systems (e.g. object permanence to utterances) Connectionist or Network models seem to be most persuasive for the cognitive approach; increased complexity of networks are linked to increased facility with language (support from empirical rsch and computer simulations

19 Language Development in Infancy & Toddlers Social Interactionist – Biopsychosocial Model of language development Interactions with others in the environment (ala Vygotsky’s ideas) Appropriate stimulation during sensitive periods Corrections provide feedback and expansion without negative demeanor Child’s gestures coupled with words are accepted and recast Code-switching

20 Language Development in Infancy & Toddlers Precursors to Language Development in Infancy – Perceptual skills—auditory acuity and discrimination – Social interactions—opportunities to hear the native language – Shared attention to distinctive features [directed by competent language user]

21 Language Development in Infancy & Toddlers Development of Language through Infancy and Toddlerhood Prelinguistic – Neonates: reflexive, non-intentional sounds – Young infants (roughly the first 2-4 months) Variation in cries Distinctive sounds indicating pleasure Gazing with apparent intent

22 Language Development in Infancy & Toddlers Development of Language through Infancy and Toddlerhood Linguistic/Comunicative – Gestures coordinated with sounds (6 to 8months) – Babbling with presence of syllables (consonant- vowel repetitions; cross cultural) – Echolalia (immediate repetition of words—8-12 months) – Can begin to link gestures with one-word utterances to establish communicative competence

23 Language Development in Infancy & Toddlers http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/ speechandlanguage.asp#mychild


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