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WEEK 6 Influence and Power.

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1 WEEK 6 Influence and Power

2 Influence and power Managing and leading
“Interpersonal skills” perspectives trait, behavioural, contingency “Power” perspectives Does sharing power increase it? Tactics to influence others

3 Lecture 6 Learning Outcomes
The relationship between Management and Leadership The influencing process and the student as change agent Leadership Trait theory Behavioural theory Situational theory Perspectives of Power

4 Management and leadership – Naylor 2004
Management is the process of achieving organizational objectives, within a changing environment, by balancing efficiency, effectiveness and equity, attaining the most from limited resources, and working with and through people (p.6). Leadership is the process of influencing people towards achievement of organizational goals (p. 354).

5 Mintzberg’s managerial roles (1979)
Figurehead Leader Liaison Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Entrepreneur Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Negotiator

6 Six steps to effective change – Beer et al. 1990
Mobilize commitment to change through joint diagnosis of business problems Develop a shared vision of how to organize and manage for competitiveness Foster consensus for the new vision, competence to enact it and cohesion to move it along Spread revitalization to all departments without pushing it from the top Institutionalize revitalization through formal policies, systems and structures Monitor and adjust strategies in response to problems in the revitalization process

7 Overview of themes Figure A model of the influencing process

8 Why study influencing? Managing depends on influencing others
Inputs, transforming, outputs Understanding range of models helps Influencer to choose approach suited to context Influencee to see approach and decide response Understanding assumptions helps to question approach and to consider alternatives, and their limitations that may suit the context better

9 Managing and influencing
Managers only do their job (adding value to resources) by influencing others About inputs, transformation, outputs “Others” will be subordinates, equals, higher in the hierarchy or outside the organisation – Fig. 14.2

10 The directions of influencing
Figure Influencing in four directions

11 Traits models Assumption: some people have identifiable personal attributes that make them effective vision, decisiveness, optimism… see Table 14.1 – the big five Limitations effect of other variables (e.g. colleagues) and context Contributions some evidence of links to effectiveness (Yukl, 2001) often used as selection criteria (see Table 14.3 – NHS)

12 Behavioural models Identified two categories of leader behaviour
Ohio State (Fleishman, 1953) initiating structure allocating specific tasks, setting standards, scheduling… consideration expressing appreciation, helping, approachable Michigan State (Likert, 1961) – similar Effects on performance inconclusive (but see Judge et al., 2004 and also Semco)

13 Grid model (Blake and Mouton, 1964)
Figure The managerial grid

14 Situational (or contingency) models
Trait and behavioural models ignore context – “universal” prescriptions Situational models propose that effective influence depends on using an approach that is suitable for the circumstances task, environment, subordinates – e.g. Helmut Panke of BMW)

15 Path–Goal Theory Figure House’s path–goal theory

16 Situations favouring participation/direction
Table Conditions favouring participative or directive styles

17 Influence depends on person’s power
Power perspectives Influence depends on person’s power French and Raven (1959) on five sources Legitimate From formal position in organisation Resource Access to rewards with which to persuade (influence) Coercive Ability to use or threaten physical force Referent Charisma, personal qualities Expertise Acknowledged as having relevant skill

18 Personal and positional (Hales, 2001)
Table Personal and positional sources of power Source: Based on Hales (2001)

19 “To increase power, share it”
Kanter: three “lines of power” that managers use Supply – money, resources to use as a reward Information – knowing what’s going on Support – get senior backing for actions Sharing these with subordinates increases their power AND Enables managers to spend time on senior/external contacts that further build their power

20 Tactics to influence others
Kipnis et al. (1980) and Yukl (1990, 1992) identify nine tactics people use when influencing subordinates, bosses, colleagues – see Table 14.7. Tactics vary with target (contingency) Inspirational and pressure for subordinates Rational persuasion for boss Exchange and personal appeal for colleagues

21 Influencing through networks
Maintaining relationships with others who may be able to assist. Networks of Practitioners Privileged power Ideological People-oriented Strategic Access to networks gives contacts and information to use when influencing others (Kleiner, 2003 on core groups)

22 Leadership theories vary from those which maintain that there are a set of characteristics that leaders must have if they are to gain success Agreement is becoming evident that leading change requires more than command and control behaviours fashionable in times when organizations operated in stable predictable environments Leadership in conjunction with other elements of organizational life, comprise the context in which change takes place

23 Conclusion Models of influencing enable you to analyse current practice and whether it is suited for the situation Can also question assumptions behind an influencer’s overall approach and specific tactics Are they right for the context, and what alternatives might work better – such as altering the balance between interpersonal and power approaches? Also enables reflection on the idea of sharing power to increase it, in view of contingency (situational) perspectives


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